Retour à l'accueil Sciences et Technologies
de l´Information et
de la Communication pour
l´Éducation et la Formation


Site ATIEF


Résumés anglais
Abstracts

Ben-Manson TOUSSAINT, Vanda LUENGO, Francis JAMBON

Analysis of Perceptual-Gestural Knowledge in an Intelligent Tutoring System (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 24, 2017 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Sélection de la conférence EIAH 2015.

To cover the aspects of multimodal knowledge such as percep-tual-gestural knowledge, various devices are required. Traces produced by these devices provide rich information and often accurate on learners’ activity. However, those traces are multi-source and heterogeneous and, thus, difficult to process automatically. To foster their treatment, a formal representation that reflects consistent multimodal activity to which they are linked, is needed. This paper describes our proposal to formalize this type of traces re-corded from TELEOS, an Intelligent Tutoring System dedicated to percuta-neous orthopedic surgery.

Albert STREBELLE, Lionel MÉLOT, Amandine DUCARME, Christian DEPOVER

Analysis of social behaviours in the frame of collaborative learning of a floor robot programming activities (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 24, 2017 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Sélection de la conférence EIAH 2015.

The article focuses on collaborative learning in the frame of programming activities of the Bee-Bot floor robot in school. We propose a method to analyse social behaviour of young children when they collaborate in small groups. This method took place in the frame of a participative observation whose goal was to analyse personal investment of the twenty-one subjects of a sample of pupils in primary school, aged five to six, during common manipulations of the programmable toy. On the other hand, the focus is set on determination of the way the intra-group collaboration operates. One of the outcomes of the research is the determination of fives behaviour profiles: competitors, leaders, conciliators, followers, not implicated ones and of collaborative dynamics based on combinations of profiles.

Denise SUTTER WIDMER, Nicolas SZILAS

Serious game, motivation, engagement, interest, flow, gameplay experience (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 24, 2017 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Sélection de la conférence EIAH 2015.

We developed a video game in Algebra to investigate how motivation to learn and to engage in a learning activity relates to the experiential qualities reported by learners and to in-game behavior. We used a clustering method to reveal motivation student profiles. We show that some learners are more oriented toward the game, others are more interested in the learning content, and some are interested by neither one nor the other. These profiles correspond to different types of expectations and motivations that will determine the level of engagement in the game activity and learning. Unfilled expectations were found to negatively impact engagement and performance in the game.

Gaëtan TEMPERMAN, Sébastien WALGRAEVE, Bruno DE LIEVRE, Karim BOUMAZGUIDA

Development of conceptual and analytic skills through the combined use of a discussion board and an etherpad (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 24, 2017 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Sélection de la conférence EIAH 2015.

In this article, a multilevel analysis approach was used to study the joint use of a collaborative writing tool (Etherpad) and a discussion forum in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment dedicated to practical activities in a university course (1st level). The learning sequence was designed so as to promote conceptual and analytic skills. The results showed that learners developed the targeted skills through elaborative tasks during which the two collaborative tools (Etherpad and forum) were used. Moreover, thanks to the analysis of traces of tools use in the CSCL environment, we were able to identify the process variables that partly explained the learning progress. We observed that these explanatory factors can, however, vary according to the nature of the task.

Nicolas SZILAS, Jean DUMAS, Urs RICHLE, Nicolas HABONNEAU

Contribution of a narrative simulation to the acquisition of social skills (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 24, 2017 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Sélection de la conférence EIAH 2015.

This paper concerns the psychological assistance for youth with one parent suffering from a traumatic brain injury. It consists of a narrative simulation, an innovative solution for helping them to acquire some of the social skills needed in their situation. A technical and methodological description of the narrative simulation is followed by its evaluation, based on a questionnaire and a log analysis on 22 subjects concerned by the project, who used the software during one session. Among results, usability, curiosity and flow have been positively evaluated.

Esteban LOISEAU, Pierre LAFORCADE, Nour EL MAWAS, Sébastien IKSAL

Designing Visual Instructional Design Language from the abstraction of Learning Management System functionnalities (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 24, 2017 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Sélection de la conférence EIAH 2015.

The GraphiT project aims to help teachers in specifying of pedagogically sound learning scenarios that can be executed for automatically setting-up the related Learning Management System course. We intend to provide teachers with LMS-specific instructional design languages and editors. To achieve this goal, we have to raise the LMS semantics in order to enrich the pedagogical expressiveness of the produced models. We propose a specific LMS-centered approach for abstracting the low-level concepts and turning these semantics into higher-level pedagogical building blocks. We present and illustrate our propositions focused on the Moodle LMS.

Franck SILVESTRE, Philippe VIDAL, Julien BROISIN

A new assessment process to improve the quality of feedbacks in online tests (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 24, 2017 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Sélection de la conférence EIAH 2015.

Our previous works introduced Tsaap-Notes, a platform able to generate multiple choice test questions providing feedbacks. It reuses interactive questions asked during the lecture by the teacher, as well as the notes taken by students after the presentation of the results ; these are used as the feedbacks integrated into the generated tests. In this paper we introduce a new process called N phases process and its implementation within Tsaap-Notes. This process aims on one hand at increasing substantially the number of contributions of students and, on the other hand, at significantly improving the quality of the feedbacks used in the tests. Our approach has been validated during an experimentation conducted with two groups of master students enrolled in a computer science curriculum.

Baptiste MONTERRAT, Élise LAVOUÉ, Sébastien GEORGE, Michel DESMARAIS

The impact of adaptive gamification on learners engagement (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 24, 2017 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Sélection de la conférence EIAH 2015.

Gamification is increasingly used to address the lack of learner motivation. However, gamification systems generally do not consider learner's preferences for game mechanics. This paper presents a model to adapt the gamification features to the learners according to their player profile. An evaluation of this model shows that adapted game features increase learner engagement, while counter-adapted game features decrease their motivation.

Lionel MÉLOT, Albert STREBELLE, Jérôme MAHAUDEN, Christian DEPOVER

The use of Facebook in a university setting (texte) (pdf)

Volume 24, 2017 - Rubrique

Numéro spécial : Sélection de la conférence EIAH 2015.

Today, the social media like 'Facebook' are part of our everyday life. They create a number of human interactions. This is why it seems relevant to question their uses as well as their representations by academic users. This research mainly focuses on educational and communicational uses by University students enrolled in a master's degree in educational sciences at the University of Mons (UMons), within their degree courses. We also focus on Facebook groups and more specifically on the activities performed by the students. We highlight the fact that learners recognize benefits to Facebook such as accessibility, convenience, swiftness and ease of communication. Nevertheless, they emphasize disadvantages associated with distraction and confidentiality.

Elena CODREANU, Christine MICHEL, Marc-Eric BOBILLIER-CHAUMON, Olivier VIGNEAU

Acceptance and appropriation of Virtual Learning Environments of primary school teachers (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 24, 2017 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Sélection de la conférence EIAH 2015.

This article presents an evaluation of the conditions of use of a VWE (Virtual Work Environment) by primary school teachers. To this end, we conducted two studies and used activity theory as theoretical framework. Our first study aims to assess real practices carried out with the VWE and analyzed publications’content in order to understand how users appropriate the tool. The second study describes how teachers perceive the role of the VWE in the evolution of their working practices (maintaining, transforming and restricting the existent practices). These studies indicate that technological appropriation is achieved through instructional and communicational uses. The acceptance of this VWE is due to its ease of use and interface adequacy to teachers and young children.

Rim BEJAOUI, Gilbert PAQUETTE, Josianne BASQUE et France HENRI

A framework for analyzing personalization of learning in MOOCs (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 24, 2017 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Recherches actuelles sur les MOOC

We present a theoretically founded framework for analyzing personalization in MOOCs which includes an ontology of the various properties of learning personalization that can be applied in MOOCs and an analytical grid of these properties. The grid can assist the MOOC designer in his decision-making for learning personalization. We also present the validation results of the framework by experts.

Christelle MARIAIS, Aurélie BAYLE, Marie-Hélène COMTE, Jean-Marc HASENFRATZ, Isabelle REY

Two years of MOOC design at Inria: outcomes and feedback (texte) (pdf)

Volume 24, 2017 - Rubrique

Numéro spécial : Recherches actuelles sur les MOOC

This article presents six MOOCs produced by Inria Learning Lab (formerly Inria Mooc Lab) in 2014-2015 as well as feedbacks from participants, analysis of data and reflections. This report raises some issues and puts forward needs that should be addressed in future works. The aim is to guide the design of future MOOCs and to share this information with the MOOC designers’ community.

Jean ECALLE, Marion NAVARRO, Hélène LABAT, Christophe GOMES, Laurent CROS, Annie MAGNAN

Developing apps to stimulate reading learning: What are the scientific hypotheses? (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 23, 2016 - Article de Recherche

The use of new technologies into academic learning and more specifically into reading is currently the subject of numerous works. The aim of this paper is to present examples of apps on tablets to help children with difficulties in learning to read. Having described the theoretical foundations and principles, three apps are successively presented to stimulate the alphabetic code and the decoding procedure. One is based on the stimulation of phonological skills, the second on learning letters emphasizing a multi-sensory approach and the third on the syllabic processing. The conclusion focuses on the use of tablets in teaching practices, their ergonomic aspects and conditions of their effectiveness.

Françoise POYET

Generalization of Virtual Work Environments usage in french secondary education: A diachronic analysis (2009-2014) (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 23, 2016 - Article de Recherche

A diachronic survey spanning a five year period (2009-2014) to report on the evolution of pedagogical uses of digital work environments (DWEs) by middle and high-school teachers. The data so gathered among 1492 teachers in 2014 confirm with nuances the 2009 data. They highlight how the spreading of DWE uses does not follow a linear progression. Many trajectories of development appear displaying progressions, stagnations and regressions as to techno-pedagogical innovation. Our research shows how gaps have formed between less experienced and more experienced teachers.

Olivier GRUGIER

Meeting with new objects to touch screens in schools. A technological education (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 23, 2016 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Enseigner, accompagner, apprendre, quels changements à l’heure du numérique ?

One of the areas of learning in primary school, is the discovery of the world" of the objects. Experimenting with the IWB, in an environment specially designed for group instruction, is a privileged occasion to allow children to build a body of knowledge. In order to achieve practical familiarization, children must act on object and develop a language. The analysis of data shows that children are aware of the manipulative practice of the teacher. The IWB is mainly perceived as an object for storing information.

Béatrice VERQUIN SAVARIEAU, Hervé DAGUET

The virtual classroom synchronous and distance learning pose new challenges for teachers. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 23, 2016 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Enseigner, accompagner, apprendre, quels changements à l’heure du numérique ?

This paper study an educational ICT context : the virtual classroom. We interviewed and observe blended learning teachers questioning their pédagogical praticices and role. The two main foci are: First, the virtual classroom is used as a space for visual representation. What pedagogy will be use by teacher? Second, the virtual classroom is a blended learning communication device. Should we think it to be a learning or a socializating space?

Cathia PAPI

On the Development of the E-Teaching Profession (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 23, 2016 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Enseigner, accompagner, apprendre, quels changements à l’heure du numérique ?

While Internet permeates our work and life patterns, this research addresses the changes introduced via technological developments on the activities of professors who teach using Distance Education tools [DE]. Based on interview data obtained from professors with significant experience in the area, this analysis reveals that technology has allowed better course production as well as increased student guidance. Nevertheless, such technological tools remain largely subordinated to the pedagogical approaches deployed. Furthermore, this research finds that, independently of the technologies deployed, the division of tasks in DE courses remains largely unchanged due to ideological considerations proper to the DE model, namely, accessibility and quality.

Martine PETERS, Judith OUELLET ST-DENIS, Jacques CHEVRIER,
Raymond LEBLANC

reservice teachers vision of ICT integration as seen in concepts maps (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 23, 2016 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Enseigner, accompagner, apprendre, quels changements à l’heure du numérique ?

In order to develop reflection among future teachers, they, as part of an initial training course, built two concept maps on the integration of ICT in a two-month interval. The recurring concepts in the heart of the maps and on their outskirts, were analyzed. The results show that future teachers are concerned about the competencies and roles of teachers and students in teaching and learning using ICT. They perceive technology as a motivational tool for students as well as a tool for their professional development. This research contributes to clarify the perception of future teachers of ICT integration.

Emmanuelle VOULGRE, Stéphanie NETTO

School radio : what kinds of training for teachers in Burundi and in France ? (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 23, 2016 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Enseigner, accompagner, apprendre, quels changements à l’heure du numérique ?

This article falls within the scope of a research entitled SUPERE-RCF, framed by a group of experts IFADEM and funded by AUF and OIF. It offers a historical and geopolitical approach of radio to be left in particular examples of pedagogical broadcasts and school radios in France and Burundi mainly. We explore especially then the place of School Nderagakura Radio (RSN) to the prism of PADI square and the theory of social representations. Our qualitative analysis is based on 25 semi-structured and exploratory interviews led to Burundi. It enabled us to identify three groups having activities in link with this public radio: teachers of basic teaching, managers of supervision in the Ministry for Education and journalists themselves attached to this Ministry. The analysis of the interviews allows to questioning the pedagogic appreciation of the RSN with IFADEM in terms of supervision and of training of teachers. It also leads to identify and interrogate the opportunity offered by supervision system to make meet the different groups. Then, we analyze the anchoring of the device in teacher training in Africa and the role of NGOs. Our conclusion opens on problems related to the evolution of digital technologies that the teachers will be brought to suit in terms of literacy to advance their professional practices.

Eric SANCHEZ, Valérie EMIN-MARTINEZ, Nadine MANDRAN

Toward a model of play : an empirical study (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 22, 2015 - Article de Recherche

This paper is based on a work carried out for the Tamagocours project, a game designed to learn the legal rules that comply with the policies for the use of digital resources for an educational context. We rely on the Theory of Didactical Situations to propose a model which encompasses two layers of play: (1) a layer of individual play in which the player/learner develops strategies and mobilizes knowledge to meet the challenge and (2) a layer of collaborative play where teammates formulate and establish the validity of the knowledge they used. We discuss this model through an empirical research, based on recording and analyzing the digital traces of nearly 200 students. The data analysis process combines a principal component analysis followed by a clustering method. These traces enabled for drawing a behavioral model of the players/learners, and to distinguish different classes of players according to their strategies.

Françoise POYET

Perception of usefulness and uses of digital work environments by high school teachers (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 22, 2015 - Article de Recherche

This article analyses the ways in which high school teachers perceive the usefulness of digital work environments (below, digital work environment, "DWE"). A survey of 1492 teachers in French junior high schools and high schools within two regional education authorities (Academies of Auvergne and Isère) focused on how their perception of the usefulness of DWEs in teaching their subject relates to some psychosocial or techno-pedagogical factors. Three pedagogical use rationales hinging on these users' varying perceptions of usefulness of DWEs emerge: an innovation rationale based on socio-constructivist models, a reproduction rationale grounded in traditional models of transmission, and an obligation rationale due to the Ministry's directions.

Carole LE HENAFF, Brigitte GRUSON

Using speech synthesis to support the development of L1 written skills: a study of dictation exercises in grade 2 (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 22, 2015 - Article de Recherche

We present the results of a research project on CALL and the learning of French writing with a speech synthesis tool, during dictation exercises in grade 2. We examine, thanks to the Joint Action Theory in Didactics, how the speech synthesis helps the students edit their writings in order to improve their spelling and morpho-syntax. The students actually use the synthesis to manage their working time and their listening strategies, but they also expect too much help in the editing process from the tool, which affects how they understand their errors.

Simon COLLIN, Nicolas GUICHON, Jean Gabin NTÉBUTSÉ

A Social-Critical Approach to Digital Technology in Education (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 22, 2015 - Article de Recherche

This article aims to contribue to formalize a sociocritical approach of digital technology in education. Such a sociocritical approach focuses on the rela-tionships between students’ sociocultural profiles and contexts, and their disposition to learn with digital technology. This approach lies at the crossroads of sociology of use, on the one hand, which has granted little attention to educational uses of digital technology, and, on the other hand, education sciences, which have mainly consid-ered educational uses of digital technology within the school context. It is part of the theme of educational uses of digital technology (Baron, 2014) and it is complemen-tary to didactic and psychopedagogical approaches of digital technology, which are more commonly used. We first explain the foundation of this approach of digital technology in education. We then present an overview of three main research inter-ests of this approach, before discussing its methodological implications, its comple-mentarity with educational technology approaches and the challenges that are raised.

Karim SEHABA, Aarij Mahmood HUSSAAN

Architecture and models for adaptive generation of serious game scenarios. Application : Serious Game for Cognitive Rehabilitation (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Évaluation dans les jeux sérieux.

Our research work focuses on adaptive serious games. More pre-cisely, our work aims at the development of a generic and evolutive platform, which allows the generation of pedagogical scenarios adapted to the characteristics and needs of users. For that purpose, we have proposed an architecture that organizes the domain knowledge in three layers: domain concepts, pedagogical resources and game resources. The interaction traces are used in order to update the learner pro-file. The architecture and its associated models were developed into the platform GOALS (Generator of Adaptive Learning Scenarios). To validate our contributions, we have evaluated GOALS in various experimentations in the context of project CLES (Cognitive Linguistic Elements Stimulations). This project, in partnership with many teams specializing in video games, ergonomics of HCI and cognitive mechanisms, focuses on the development of a serious game for the cognitive stimulation.

Nicolas ROLAND, Laurent TALBOT

The personal learning environment : an hybrid instrument system. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les EPA : entre description et conceptualisation.

Through a social-cognitive approach, this contribution aims to treat personal learning environment (PLE) as an instrument system on the one hand, and on the other hand to understand the ties that bind the digital and non-digital tools of that system. By means of logbooks, semi-structured interviews conducted with 28 students from 6 different educational environments and study document, we were able to identify the common pattern in the students’ personal learning environment as well as the PLE-development process. Our results led us first to question the technocentric definition of personal learning environment, therefore to comprehend the logics of appropriation in terms of personal and environmental factors, and to highlight the characteristics of this specific instrument system.

Daniel PERAYA, Philippe BONFILS

Function creep and new digital practices: the experience of Ingémedia students at the University of Toulon. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les EPA : entre description et conceptualisation.

A This paper contributes to a study conducted for three years on the analysis of digital uses of students involved in project at the faculty of Ingemedia at the University of Toulon. It describes the collective virtual working environments adopted by these groups of students and attempts to analyze the functions of commu-nication and information mobilized for projects. The results show that some new cultural and social digital practices highly participate hijacking uses within the de-vices. The authors conclude with the emergence of what they call new online forms of "being together" for a better "working together".

Stéphanie MAILLES-VIARD METZ, Emilie VAYRE, Chrysta PELISSIER

Guide for the design of an EPA model by bachelor first year students: support for self-regulation of learning? (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les EPA : entre description et conceptualisation.

Regarding the characteristics of Personal Learning Environments (PLE) mentioned in the literature, we believe that designing a PLE in a pedagogical context will help students to develop self-determined motivational profile, increase their self-efficacy and experiment with new learning strategies. The objective of this paper is to report on the first phase of a longitudinal study aimed to test this hypothe-sis. In this context we present a state of art of the psychological dimensions involved, the pedagogical scenario and the evaluation device developed to measure the effects of the design of a PLE.

Jean HEUTTE

Persist in building one’s own personal learning environment: Respective roles and contributions of three théories of the self (self-determination, self-efficacy, autotelism-flow) (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les EPA : entre description et conceptualisation.

This paper presents a socio-cognitive model of student’ persistence to develop a Personal Learning Environment (PLE). Following the presentation of the problematic of the PLE in its socio-technical perspective, we will endeavour to synthesize key aspects of three theories of the self (see self-determination, self-efficacy and autotelism - flow) to highlight their complementarity to better understand the phenomenon of persistence, in terms of development of the PLE. Ultimately, the inclu-sion of the original tracks opens complementary theoretical and empirical research on the PLE, particularly in view to highlight some elements of an optimal learning environment.

Annie JÉZÉGOU

Human agentivity: a key driver for the development of a personal learning environment (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les EPA : entre description et conceptualisation.

Today, the semantic associated to the expression "personal learning environment" (PLE) is primarily linked to ordinary language, itself supported by scattered patchwork representations. It is still not supported theoretically, paving the way for multiple interpretations and diverse logics of action. The article presents the essential features of a theoretical framework for analysis and interpretation of the EPA, thereby obtaining their intelligibility. This theoretical framework is grounded in social cognitive theory of human agency. Conceptually, it articulates the foundations of this theory to the results of work on self-direction, collaboration, online learning communities as well as presence in e-learning.

France HENRI

Personal learning environments, study of an emerging research theme (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les EPA : entre description et conceptualisation.

We try in this article to characterize the research on personal learn-ing environments (PLE) and to trace its evolution based on an analysis of papers that illustrates the various conceptualizations on this matter. The notions of concrete object, research object and scientific object (Davallon, 2004) provide a framework for our study allowing for the identification of four markers which show diverse ways to approach PLE. Thus, the article is structured in four parts: the genesis of the PLE research, the quest for a definition of PLE, the problematization and theorization of PLE, and the confrontation through experiment. Our study is a contribution to the debate on PLE as a research thematic, on its formalization, its scientificity, and on the opportunity to develop a shared vison among researchers from different disci-plines interested by PLE.

Monique GRANDBASTIEN, Samuel NOWAKOWSKI

Embedded knowledge to customize learning environments: Application to OP4L platform (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les EPA : entre description et conceptualisation.

The design and implementation of personal learning environ-ments is based on the modeling of a set of diverse data and the use of available web technologies. This article gives a brief overview of the types of data most often used to customize the learning environments as well as of the way to process these data. It then focuses on knowledge based approaches and the use of shared ontological models to ensure data interoperability between services. This ap-proach is illustrated by the inclusion of the concept of on line presence in the OP4L platform and by students’ feedbacks.

Denis GILLET, Na LI

Personal learning environments and their integration in university education (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les EPA : entre description et conceptualisation.

In this paper, the concept of personal learning environment is first refined taken into account recent advances and the experience gathered in a Europe-an research project dedicated to responsive open learning environments. A prototypal implementation of a Web 2.0 platform enabling the construction, the sharing and the repurposing of personal learning environments is then introduced. Participatory design and validation activities carried out in the framework of higher education test beds aiming at understanding the benefits of personal learning environments in aca-demic institutions are presented. Finally, the broaden application framework for the deployment and the adoption of open user-centric environments for learning and knowledge management is tackled in various contexts, such as for implementing connectivist massive open online courses.

Cédric FLUCKIGER

Analysis of Personal Learning Environments in terms of instrumental discontinuity (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les EPA : entre description et conceptualisation.

The notion of PLE explains how students increasingly use daily digi-tal tools for their academic activities. We propose to revisit the notion of PLE noting that the instrument concept can help us to describe the discontinuity between academ-ic and private use universes. In that purpose, we show how it is not the same instru-ments that are used in practices in different contexts. We draw some conclusions on the notion of PLY

Brigitte DENIS, Noémie JORIS

Personal Learning Environments: Exploration of Higher Education’s Students’ Representations and Uses (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les EPA : entre description et conceptualisation.

Currently, it is difficult for a student to pursue higher education without using a digi-tal environment. This leads to the emergence the concept of Personal Learning Envi-ronment (PLE). The authors define it and consider his competition or complementarity with the digitals institutional environments. They report exploratory study results on students’ representations about their numeric learning environments and their interests about them. Data comes from questionnaires and interviews. Their analysis shows different profiles related to the PLE. Linking the results to learning theories and aspects of technical and educational design, they propose further inves-tigation and development related to the complementarity of PLE and institutional learning environments (ILE).

Bernadette CHARLIER

Personal Learning Environments: tools for learning beyond borders (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les EPA : entre description et conceptualisation.

In this paper, we invite to apprehend Personal Learning Environments (PLE) as systems of instruments mediating cross boundaries learning experiences. Firstly, we justify this research object. Then, we elaborate a conceptual framework to study it at six levels: the learning experience, the individual and the social characteristics, the technical objects, the activities and the system of instrument. Eventually, this framework is used to analyse three cases of young adults. This exploratory research examines the heuristic value of our proposal, its limits and the opened perspectives.

Claver NIJIMBERE

Learning computer science by programming robots : the case of NAO (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

This article aims at studying the acquisition of comput-er knowledge by bachelor students in a context learning to program with Nao, an humanoid robot. It is a part of an ongoing doctoral disser-tation at the Paris Descartes University. Ethnographic observations were performed in the context of realizing projects. We have led peri-odical group discussions with students and with instructors. Results show the mobilization of much multidisciplinary computer knowledge. Advanced mathematical knowledge, mandatory for Nao’s performance, was limited by the lack of a model which would be required in order to breakdown the tasks into elementary actions.

Sébastien KUBICKI, Denis PASCO, Ingrid ARNAUD

Using in classroom a serious game on a tangible tabletop interface to improve students' activity: a comparative study in first grade (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Évaluation dans les jeux sérieux.

In this study, we evaluate in which extent a tangible tabletop interface can enhance students’ activity involve in playing a serious game. Participants were eleven first grade students. Each group practiced the game in class and then, the same serious game for a tangible tabletop interface. Time on task of each student was measured in the two conditions of practicing the game. Results indicate that the time students spend on task in playing the serious game on a tangible tabletop interface is significantly higher than the time they spend on task when playing the game in class. However, results revealed interindividual differences. Finally, data shown that students’ activity is mostly asynchronous in playing the serious game on a tangible tabletop interface while their activity is mostly synchronous in playing the game in class.

Michel GALAUP, Chantal AMADE-ESCOT

Appraising the didactical uses of a serious game by the mean of joint action analysis: the case of Mecagenius® (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Évaluation dans les jeux sérieux.

This article focuses on how a mechanical engineering serious game Mecagenius® is used by teachers in a high school and in a higher education institute of technology (IUT). To account of it we make a bottom-up analysis of the didactic transposition by means of analytical descriptors related to teacher and students’ didactical joint action. We first present the theoretical framework and the research method, then we illustrate how Mecagenius® is used by teachers through short ex-tracts borrowed from two case studies. The findings highlight the contrasting forms of artifact integration into teachers’ usual teaching practices. The conclusion discusses the contribution of this study for understanding the potential uses of serious games in ordinary teaching.

Damien DJAOUTI

Using analytics platforms for Serious Games evaluation: an experiment (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Évaluation dans les jeux sérieux.

User tracking is one of the keys to evaluate the effectiveness of Serious Games. Two main approaches are available to perform such user tracking: the first one is to insert the Serious Game inside a LMS through SCORM or IMS-LD, while the second one is to build a custom analysis tool for each Serious Game. In this article, we introduce a third approach to track Serious Games users: the use of generic metrics & analytics platforms. This article presents an experiment where two Serious Games have been assessed using two of these platforms: Google Analytics and Playtomic. We will first detail the context of this project, before analysing the data that has been collected. Thanks to the results of this experiment, we will then start a discussion about the advantages and the limits of these generic metrics & analytics platforms for Serious Games assessment, compared to the two others available approaches.

Jean HEUTTE, Michel GALAUP, Catherine LELARDEUX, Pierre LAGARRIGUE, Fabien FENOUILLET

Study of the psychological determinants of persistence in playing a serious game: assessing the optimal learning environment with Mecagenius® (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Évaluation dans les jeux sérieux.

The aim of this paper is to show the relevance of motivational key concepts in evalu-ating the use of serious game. This research involves 115 students training with Mecagenius® (serious game in mechanical engineering). The results of the explorato-ry study also confirm the relevance of the use of flow in Education scale (EduFlow) to evaluate the optimal learning experience with a serious game. It also appears that EduFlow is related to specific actions within the school context such as self-efficacy, motivational climate and interest.

Mathieu MURATET, Élisabeth DELOZANNE, Fabienne VIALLET, Patrice TORGUET

Teaching computer programming with a serious game: study on various university contexts (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Évaluation dans les jeux sérieux.

This paperstudies a large-scale use (388 students and 22 teachers), in various contexts and during several sessions of Prog&Play, afree serious game specially designed to teach computer programming fundamentals.In earlier quantitative studies, we found, through a students’ motivation survey,that the students’ interest for Prog&Play was not only related to the intrinsicgame quality, it was also related to the teaching context. In this paper, after presenting the project, weinvestigate conditions of the game adoption in different university teaching settings. Results from a qualitativestudy of 56 students’ and 17 teachers’ comments, suggest guidelines for asuccessful implementation of Prog&Play.

Sébastien GEORGE, Christine MICHEL, Audrey SERNA, Luca BISOGNIN

Evaluating the Impact of a Mixed Reality Learning Game (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Évaluation dans les jeux sérieux

Mixed Reality Learning Games (MRLG) are digital environments which combine game-based learning and mixed reality technologies. They can provide new opportunities for learning. Nevertheless, we still know little about the learning outcomes and the situations they favor. We present in this paper an experimental study which aims to evaluate these impacts. We designed and developed a MRLG to teach Lean Man-agement principles in an engineering school. Four multi-touch tabletops are used, each one representing a workstation in a production line on which some actions are carried with tangible interfaces. We present the results of an experiment that com-pares two situations, one with the MRLG and the other with a non-computer version of the same learning game. The comparison revealed a tendency for the MRLG situa-tion to effectively have a positive impact on learning, particularly regarding theoreti-cal concepts.

Aina LEKIRA, Christophe DESPRÉS, Pierre JACOBONI, Dominique PY

Reporting interventions’ effects to the tutor with meta-indicators (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

In this paper, we study how to support a human tutor who regulates the learner’s activity, in the framework of mediated tutoring. Our goal is to provide the tutor with informations about the effect of his/her interventions. To achieve this, we propose an indicator-based approach and introduce the notion of meta-indicator. The distinguishing feature of meta-indicators is that they follow the evolution of indicators’ values. In order to evaluate our proposal, we have tried to meas-ure the impact of the information provided by meta-indicators, both on tutor activity and learner activity. We have conducted experiments, in ecological context, in the domain of object-oriented programming. The results suggest an improvement of the effects of tutoring inter-ventions and a positive impact on learners’ activity.

Ecaterina PACURAR, Nargis ABBAS

Professional high school teachers’ intention use of digital work environment (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 21, 2014 - Article de Recherche

This research analyzes the intention use of digital work environment (DWE) by the secondary school teachers in France. It was investigated if there are significant cor-relations between teachers DWE intention use, subject teaching and gender difference. A theoretical framework is used to propose a hypothetical model. The gender, the subject teaching, the use of computers at home and the technical skills are the exogenous variables in this hy-pothetical model in order to measure the degree of sig-nificance of these variables on the intention use of DWE in secondary school. A survey research design was adopted to collect the data on the DWE use from the Acad-emy of Strasbourg Institution. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA was used to measure the difference among the groups. While structural equation modeling technique was used to test and validate the proposed model. The results tend to demonstrate that the DWE is perceived primarily as a "communication tool“or as a means to achieve the prescribed uses by the academic institutions.

Vincent Faillet, Pascal Marquet, Jean-Luc Rinaudo

The invisible student: a study on the use of clickers in high school classrooms. (résumé)(article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Recherches en EIAH, politiques publiques, pratiques des acteurs (et des chercheurs)

Our study addresses the question of anonymity in the case of using clickers in high school classrooms, and the consequences resulting from the anonymi-ty on the relativity of student knowledge. The results show a preference of students for anonymous responses. In the case of this anonymity, we postulate that the mobiliza-tion of psychic processes can be compared with the Winnicott’s transitional phenom-ena. The anonymous response can be recorded in an intermediate area as favorable to invest in knowing the subject knowledge.

Christine Hamel, Thérèse Laferrière, Sandrine Turcotte, Stéphane Allaire

A retrospective look at teacher professional development in Remote Networked Schools. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Cren

Teacher professional development (PD) is an important factor of student academic success. Several PD devices exist to support teachers, but few of them provide visible results in their classroom practice as well as on stu-dent learning. In Quebec, the initiative of the Remote Networked Schools, which aims to enrich the learning environments of small rural schools by using collabo-rative technologies, has provided several PD opportunities for participating teachers, with the support of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as video conferencing and an electronic forum. This article, using the theo-retical framework of Guskey (Guskey, 2003), provides a retrospective on the professional development of the teachers implementing this innovation, in order to identify their reactions to the device, their understanding of the device and its different uses, the organizational support required, and ultimately,students out-comes.

Pierre-François Coen, Jeanne Rey, Isabelle Monnard, Laurent Jauquier

Students' perceptions of Internet use in the classroom. Integration practices, pedagogical orientation and motivation. (résumé)(article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Recherches en EIAH, politiques publiques, pratiques des acteurs (et des chercheurs)

This research investigates the use of Internet in classrooms based on the perception of students (6-18 years old) from two linguistic groups (French and German) in the State of Fribourg (Switzerland). This study analyzes the frequency of Internet uses in the classroom, their pedagogical orientation (learning vs. teaching centered), as well as their effects on students’ learning motivation. Results show an effect of school level, school track, school subject and language group on the frequency of Internet use in the classroom. Further-more, in the context of learning tasks with information and communication tech-nologies (ICT), this study demonstrates a positive effect of teaching centered pedagogical orientation on students’ learning motivation.

Viktor Freiman, Dominic Manuel

Virtual environment for solving mathematical problems: users' perceptions and digital traces. (résumé)(article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Recherches en EIAH, politiques publiques, pratiques des acteurs (et des chercheurs)

How does the use of virtual learning environment change the perception of teaching and learning in students and teachers? An analysis of add-on value of mathematical problem solving activities in a collective digital space provides us with a better insight on the complexity and authenticity of the experience: while elaborating the solutions, students seem to appreciate new tools of mathematical communication and reasoning, as they report having a sense of a good challenge, autonomy and personal satisfaction; these tools also seem to con-tribute to the multiple opportunities of exchanges and collaboration. However, more research evidence is needed to convert this moment of overall excitement into the improvement of the learning of mathematics in a context of problem-solving.

François Villemonteix, Jacques Béziat

Interactive White Board (IWB) : between constraint and commitment. (résumé)(article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Recherches en EIAH, politiques publiques, pratiques des acteurs (et des chercheurs)

This article is a step in a research on the use and non-use of interactive whiteboard (IWB) in prima-ry school and its inclusion in the primary school. From interviews with teachers reporting a routine practice, we record and analyze adaptations and adjustments they make to use this technical device. We build on a system analy-sis model being created. These teachers face troubles and a set of constraints to which they adjust or adapt.

Georges-Louis Baron

French speaking research on information and communication technology: retrospective reflections and prospective ideas. (résumé)(article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Recherches en EIAH, politiques publiques, pratiques des acteurs (et des chercheurs)

ICT in education have been an object of research for at least 3 decades, constituting a specific milieu. This milieu has a pluridisciplinary character, involving researchers both from informatics and human and social sciences. This text, written from the point of view of an educational researcher, analyzes the structure of the field and discusses the evolution of the issues studied.

Mehdi Khaneboubi

One to one program in lower secondary schools of a French rural district: What effects on students' results? (résumé)(article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Recherches en EIAH, politiques publiques, pratiques des acteurs (et des chercheurs)

We seek to characterize the impact of technology on stu-dent achievement in a one to one context in the French rural territory named Département des Landes. By analyz-ing time series of results in the examination at the end of middle school we look for a différence between stu-dents with laptop at school and others. We took into ac-count indicators of central tendency, dispersion and concentration results in literature, mathematics and so-cial studies, in 4 areas of Aquitaine (Landes, Dordogne, Pyrenées-Atlantiques and Lot-et-Garonne), from 1998 to 2011, four years before and 10 years after the beginning of the endowments of laptops.

Sandra Nogry, Françoise Decortis, Carine Sort, Stéphanie Heurtier

Contribution of the Instrumental approach to the study of uses and appropriation of mobile artifacts in class (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Artefacts tactiles et mobiles en éducation

The aim of this paper is to highlight the interest of the instrumental theory to study the use and the appropria-tion of mobile and tactile artefacts in class. Inspired by activity-centered ergonomics, this approach allows to analyze the activity of teacher and students in a system-ic perspective. It aims to understand how these new arte-facts are integrated in class: what changes in the teacher’s and students’ activity are produced by these new artefacts, how the process of instrumental genesis takes place, what place they take within the resources used by the teacher, and how these artefact transform their instrument systems. This approach is illustrated by a study of the appropriation of laptops at elementary school; two sequences in mathematics and French are ana-lyzed.

François Villemonteix, Mehdi Khaneboubi

Exploratory study on the use of iPads in schools : Between ergonomic seduction and educational needs (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Artefacts tactiles et mobiles en éducation

This article presents an exploratory research on the con-ditions for the adoption of digital tablets iPad in an educational context. 13 interviews of teachers and lea-ders and four classrooms observation were conducted in a primary school, a middle school and a technological high school in Paris suburbs. Organizational, pedagogical and technical factors expressed by respondents, explain the use or non-use of tablets by teachers. Others explanatory factors refer to their perception of technology and/or interest they derive from their use. In addition, a ten-sion was characterized between a large enthusiasm due to the novelty of the ergonomic features of tablets and the important remaining constraints of the reality.

Nicolas Roland

Podcasting and Mobile Learning : Comprehensive Approach of ULB Students' Habits (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Artefacts tactiles et mobiles en éducation

The aim of the present paper is to analyse the usage habits of podcasting as a tool for mobile learning by university students. Podcasting refers to audiovisual recordings of lectures or short educational videos. The analysis of 5399 questionnaires and 51 comprehensive interviews, repeated twice or thrice over the semester, has contributed to the state of art, and has enabled the description and analysis of student use and integration of the mobile nature of podcasts within their learning strategies.

Stéphane Allaire, Pascale Thériault, Vincent Gagnon, Thérèse Laferrière, Christine Hamel, Pier-Ann Boutin, Godelieve Debeurme

Towards collective transformative writing at primary level: teachers’ intervention an technological design. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Cren

This paper reports results of a study that documented the way teachers’ intervention and affordances of a collective writing tool, Knowledge Forum, can com-bine to engage primary pupils in transformative writing. Theoretical frameword is based on writing processes and strategies. Method combines observation of teachers’ in-tervention, interviews and observation of notes written in the electronic forum. Results reveal how it is possi-ble to bring students over a knowledge telling approach to writing.

Séverine Ferrière, Philippe Cottier, Florence Lacroix, Aurélie Lainé,
Loïc Pulido

Teachers discourse about the appropriation of tablet computers in primary schools: from reject to adoption. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Cren

Many studies have shown the limits of mass dissemination of digital devices in schools. Here we analyze the speech of 18 teachers on their representations and their reception about a deployment of 1,000 IPad in primary schools in a French city. The discourse analysis brings out three types of discourses: "rejection", "indifference" and "adoption". The analyzes lead us to give special attention to mechanisms involved by teachers who report using IPad available in their classrooms.

Sonia Lefebvre, Ghislain Samson

Litterature review on the implementation of Interactive Whiteboards in schools(résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

This paper provides the results of a lit-terature review (2000-2012) on the use of interactive whiteboards in schools. The selected articles come from different, mostly anglo-saxon, scientific journals. This summary has allowed to highlight three categories of re-sults; what steps need to be taken to implement the in-teractive whiteboards, the factors that influence their implementation and how the use of interactive whiteboards has impacted teaching. The main results show that the implementation process isn't always successful and when it is, factors like time, training and follow-up are lim-iting.

François Lemieux, Michel C. Desmarais, Pierre-N. Robillard

Time analysis of logs for online study guide used in autonomous learnin (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Web-based learning environments are raising the opportunities of autonomous learning to new levels. Exercisers play an important role within this context, because they offer guidance and feedback to the student who needs to prepare for an exam, a course, or a diploma. We present an online study guide including an exerciser developed in our engineering school aimed at freshmen student before they start their degree. A pilot study that lasted one semester showed various degrees of motivation towards using the system, as measure by continuance intention. A majority of the students briefly used the exerciser, while a few of them made extensive, multi-day use. Detailed logs of their usage allowed us to reconstruct the precise use of the system. We report different means to analyse these logs, from which we extracted four usage profiles. We describe a sequence analysis method that allows a visual analysis of the users activities in time. We show how this method helps to identify patterns of use for each level of usage.

Patrick Giroux, Sandra Coulombe, Nadia Cody, Suzie Gaudreault

The use of digital tablets in high school classrooms (secondary III): benefits, challenges, requirements and emerging training needs (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Cren

Many schools are trying to innovate while the technological landscape is changing rapidly. Digital tablets like the iPad are clearly identified as an emerging technology that could have a significant impact on education in the short term (Johnson et al., 2012). A Quebec high school integrated iPad in two secondary three groups since last September. A research team accompanied the school and followed its course. This paper presents a first look at the preliminary data collected since the beginning of the project from the teachers, the students and their parents.

Jimmy Bourque, Natasha Prévost et Mathieu Lang

The Web and Critical Thinking: A Deleuzean Conceptualization (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Recherches en EIAH, politiques publiques, pratiques des acteurs (et des chercheurs)

The importance of integrating ICTs into school programs has been stressed for many years. Also, critical thinking skills take a dominant place in school curricula. Howev-er, schools provide a frame of reference whose orthodoxy is defended by assessment and certification processes. In this context, students learn through their trust towards their teachers. One of the Web’s contributions would be an easy access for students to sources of expertise other than their teachers. Many authors hypothesize that ICT use would contribute to the development and expression of critical thinking. With this paper, we explore this phe-nomenon though a deleuzean lens (the smooth/striated di-chotomy) by analysing empirical studies on this topic. Precisely, we examine whether the school environment is conducive to developing and expressing critical thinking. Empirical studies show, at best, mitigated outcomes: globally, it would be exaggerated to claim that ICTs fos-ter critical thinking.

François Burban, Philippe Cottier, Christophe Michaut

Are pupils from high schools influenced in their homework by their use of digital technologies and devices? (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Cren

1618 high school students were interviewed on their digital practices, their way to work and how much time they spend using them. The results of this survey brings out the weighted role performed by digital practices of these students, their homework time according to their socio-demographic features, the diploma prepared and the ways in which they study.

François Burban, Xavière Lanéelle

Receiving a Digital Work Environment by the actors of the education (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Cren

With the aim of promoting digital technology, to form tomorrow citizens and improve the efficiency of the educational system, the French Department of Education in cooperation with the Regions tries to promote the distribution of advanced teaching techniques. VLEs (Virtual Learning Environments) set up with this objective allow new educational practices, make the management more effective and open high schools to the parents and students, making the school organization more transparent. The members of management teams and the teachers receive the VLEs in a different way. The head masters, who do not wish to abandon their teams, work in the deployment of the device in a negotiated order. Accordingly, a part of the actors is satisfied with the advantages brought by the tool while another part criticizes and/or bypasses the VLEs. This reluctance in the use is strengthened by teachers’ fear of losing control over the activity, renewing the criticism against the recent public policies in education that would be based on a managerial logic.

François-Xavier Bernard, Laetitia Boulc'h, Grégory Arganini

Use of tablet-pc at school. An appropriation process analysis for learning (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Artefacts tactiles et mobiles en éducation

This research in exploratory matter was initiated by the Académie de Paris within the framework of an experimentation project of tablet computers at school. In September 2011, a class of pupils aged from ten to eleven was equipped with ten tablet-PC on the basis of a cultural project. Our objective was to set up a methodology of research aiming at determining if this learning situation would allow the implementation of an autonomous collaborative activity, mediated by the instrument and directed towards the knowledge. We made the assumption that the activity was going to evolve, initially supported by the teacher then carried out in autonomy, the artefact being gradually adapted by the pupils in its use and its running. Based on the observations carried out on the ground, the analysis of the interactions between pupils realised using a specific model - the media square - suggests such an appropriation.

Caroline Jolly, Edouard Gentaz

Evaluation of a tactile training for the acquisition of cursive letters handwriting in French first-grade children. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Artefacts tactiles et mobiles en éducation

Handwriting is a complex activity involving perceptuo-motor, cognitive and linguistic skills, and requires several years of formal training for a correct mastering. In this context, we evaluated two different trainings – using a touchpad or on paper – aiming at improving cursive letters handwriting in 1st-grade children presenting a delay in handwriting acquisition. The training using a tactile interface included demo videos showing the correct sense of production of cursive letters. A comparative analysis of the kinematic characteristics of handwriting before and after training showed a significant improvement of handwritten performances, in particular at the level of writing fluency, in children trained on the touchpad compared to children trained on paper or to non-trained children. These results are discussed in regards to the specificity of contributions of tactile devices.

Caroline Ladage, Jean Ravenstein

Internet and teachers: contrasts and divisions. A survey on high school teachers(résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 20, 2013 - Article de Recherche

Our comprehensive work questions secondary teachers’ statements on their ICT usages, in particular Internet, as well as what they believe students do with it. The goal is to better understand the use of Internet in education. We discover that among the 2 862 teachers we interviewed, variables (discipline, gender, age...) influence their use of digital tools and the place they give them in their professional practices. Our investigation reveals contrasting positions, divisions of opinion that reflect a lack of epistemological maturity today. The results also draw the outlines of the evolution of teachers’ mentalities that augur a promising future is possible for the use of Internet in education and training while today it is still insufficiently reasoned

Sandra Michelet, Vanda Luengo

Taking into account Intra-learner contradiction into the diagnosis
Case study : DiagElec an informatics diagnosis. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 19, 2012 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Individualisation, personnalisation et adaptation des ENA

Nowadays, Numeric Environments of Learning turn towards a consideration, in all its complexity, of the learner according to the education or the training dispensed. The problems of personalization, adaptation of the proposed activity to the learner have a repercussion on the diagnosis of knowledge of the learner. We are interested in this article in the behavior of the diagnosis and its impacts on the adaptation, when the system detects a situation of intra-learner contraction. We propose a model implemented by adaptive diagnosis integrated within an opened environment where we have chosen to let the learner contradict himself and to highlight its contradictions. We think that the results can serve as support for the feedback and remediation returned to the learner, in order to offer him(her) a personalization.

Catherine LOISY

Individualization of learning paths: potential for blogs (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 19, 2012 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Individualisation, personnalisation et adaptation des ENA

The present paper examines individualization of learning paths, in the context of the use of blogs. The theory of instrumental genesis permits defining the characteristics of the digital environment supporting development of competencies related to digital identity and guidance, and leads to the implementation of e-portfolios. Tutoring provides a framework for analyzing learning management. This research examines the practices of teachers from three high school classes. Teacher management of student learning is analyzed in terms of the acceptability of artefacts, and of supporting cognitive and affective dimensions in learning. In relation to the consideration of individualized learning, there are differences between the collected data, but these cannot be explained by differences in the teachers’ digital competencies.

Marie Lefevre, Nathalie Guin, Stéphanie Jean-Daubias

A unified personalization of learning activities (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 19, 2012 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Individualisation, personnalisation et adaptation des ENA

In this paper, we address the issue of personalization of learning activities by seeking a solution to the problem caused by the variety of devices used by teachers in preparing activities for learners. For this, we adopt a generic approach based on PERSUA2, a model for a unified personalization of learning activities. In this paper, we rely on use cases to describe needs for individualization of teaching. We then present the PERSUA2 model and, the implementation that we have made, which enable a teacher to define a personalization strategy, which is then applied by the system that prepares customized activities for students. We conclude by reporting evaluations that we conducted, which show that our approach can satisfy the different needs identified by the use cases.

Eugénie Duthoit, Stéphanie Mailles-Viard Metz, Chrysta Pélissier

Help process in learning context: an adaptation to individualize and personalize (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 19, 2012 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Individualisation, personnalisation et adaptation des ENA

Help or assistance, in training technological devices, is analyzed as a general process of adaptation and characterized by three main steps. Each of these steps is divided into two processes, a process of individualization or personalization. The process of individualization involves several or one actors of the device while the personalization process only involves one person, the one who needs help, oneself or an other. Finally, the adaptation process is a process of integration of individualized or personalized assistance within the technological environment. The study of designed supports that are involved in campus VCIel allows to characterize personalized and individualized assistance but also to illustrate the process of adaptation.

Sébastien Allain, Nicolas Szilas

Metalepsis in narrative serious games. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 19, 2012 - Article de Recherche

In the context of "serious games", this article aims to lay the foundations for a narrative and cognitive writing by using “metalepsis” to deliver more effectively pedagogical comments. It describes theoretically the possible roles of metalepses in learning, which is based first on Piaget' cognitive conflict and then on the socio-cognitive conflict. Thus, the social relationship is defined as an interaction between a learner and two potential enunciators that result from semio-pragmatics constructions triggered by the metalepsis, one of fictional origin while the other is called "real enunciator". The theoretical investigation leads to the writing of a serious game that illustrates three possible modalities of metalepsis, two of which are qualified as "sociocognitive". These modalities allow to rethink the designer's role and intervention as well as the scope of the device: according to metalepsis, learning is not confined to fiction, but in communication with the author and open to the real.

Marie Lefevre & al.

Personalization of learning: comparison of needs and approaches through
the study of several devices.
(résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 19, 2012 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Individualisation, personnalisation et adaptation des ENA

Personalization of learning is the core of current research about ILEs (Interactive Learning Environnments). Approaches for developing ILEs enabling to personalize learning vary both from a didactic point of view and from a computer science point of view. In this paper, we present results of a study conducted on several training devices. This study was designed firstly to identify current needs in terms of personalization of learning and secondly to compare approaches enabling this personalization. It led us to identify obstacles to overcome for enabling personalization of learning, and to highlight benefits and disadvantages of the solutions studied.

Nicolas Guichon

French high-school students' ICT usage: disconnection between personal usage and school usage. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 19, 2012 - Article de Recherche

This research adopts a sociological approach to study the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) by secondary school students in France through a questionnaire and interviews. Its aims are twofold : first, the empirical data provide a broad view of this population's digital use. Second, the study uncovers how digital technologies are used for homework and language learning. Results indicate a disconnection between home and school with regards to the use of ICT.

Yuchen Chen, Arnauld Séjourné

The position of the learning subject within the design of distance
learning scenarios.
(résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 19, 2012 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Individualisation, personnalisation et adaptation des ENA

In this study, we aim at understanding how the design of pedagogical scenarios in distance learning contexts is learner-centered and individualized so as to help students develop autonomy in their learning. A theoretical framework is proposed that combines research on distance learning and individualized instruction. Our research questions focus on three dimensions of distance learning scenario, namely (1) liberty of choice, (2) interactional potentiality, and (3) cognitive processes. These dimensions are used to analyze three scenarios we selected based on predefined criteria. Results of this study aim to shed light on how learners play a role in the design of the analyzed scenarios and on how the designers’ concerns are also taken into consideration.

Jean-François Hérold

Analyse cognitive de l’activité de l’élève pour une personnalisation d’un environnement numérique d’apprentissage.(résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 19, 2012 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Individualisation, personnalisation et adaptation des ENA

Designing a computer learning environment requires, among other things, taking into account the specificities of the learner. This consideration may result in the use of learner profiles to adjust and customize the computer learning environment. We then assume that a cognitive analysis of student activity from a paper activity allows to collect the elements of learner profiles sufficiently robust to the configuration of a computer learning environment. We have designed and tested a computer simulation to learn arithmetic of integers for students (13-14 years old) based on these principles in order to help students understand how to add and subtract signed numbers.

Blandine Ginon, Stéphanie Jean-Daubias

Taking into account knowledge, capacities and preferences for a multi-aspects personalization of activities on learners profiles. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 19, 2012 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Individualisation, personnalisation et adaptation des ENA

In the line of research on open learner models, more and more Interactive Learning Environments (ILE) allow users to visualize learners profiles, and to perform certain activities on their visualization: content negotiation, self-assessment, comparison with other profiles... We are interested in the personalization of these activities, first in terms of learners' knowledge and skills, and secondly according to the particularities, abilities and preferences of each user. After a detailed state of the art we present PERSUMAP, our model of unified and multi-aspects personalization of activities on profiles and its implementation. After presenting an evaluation of thatimplementation, we conclude and discuss perspectives that this researchhas open.

Giulia Ortoleva, Mireille Betrancourt, Stéphane Morand

Beetween personalisation and commonality: A user-centred approach for the conceptualization of an assessment e-booklet. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 19, 2012 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Individualisation, personnalisation et adaptation des ENA

This paper reports the development of a web-based assessment and self-assessment tool in the context of initial vocational education, in the domain of health and social care in Switzerland. A user-centred design methodology, coupled with a design-based research approach, has been used in order to develop a usable and useful environment, as well as to contribute to the research in the domain. This original design and research approach lead to the development of a tool accommodating the need to personalize apprentices’ specific learning paths along with the curricular requirements.

Pierre-Yves Connan, Fabien Emprin

ePortfolio: Developments, Uses and Representations among Teacher Educators (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 18, 2011 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : TICE

The use of Electronic Portfolios is now a reality in several countries in the world at different levels at University and particularly in schools of education (the IUFM French system). Current developments of ePortfolio within France specific institutional context give greater importance to formative assessment leading to the validation of professional skills. Our analysis based on the annual survey of the Observatory of teacher education and data directly imported from the server focus on contribution of the CBI of IUFM to teachers educator instrumental genesis.

Stéphanie Jean-Daubias, Blandine Ginon, Marie Lefevre

Models and tools to take into account evolutivity in learners profiles (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 18, 2011 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : TICE

If the concept of learners profiles is now well known and treated in various ILE (Interactive Learning Environments), the taking into account of evolution in profiles do not benefit from the same advances. The subject of this paper is to define this notion and to show how it is taken into account en ILE researches. After a definition of the concept of progressive learners profiles illustrated with examples, we show how this concept changes the models of our project, notably PMDL profiles modeling language extended to PMDLe, to take into account the evolutivity of profiles.

Virginie ZAMPA, Mathieu Lafourcade

PtiClic and PtiClic-Kids : word games for lexical acquisition by players and machine (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 18, 2011 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : TICE

This paper presents two lexical games, PtiClic and PtiClic-Kids, which are based on two lexical acquisition methods, namely Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and JeuxDeMots (JDM). We, first detail those two methods, which even if they both produce relations between terms, differ in several aspects: value, types, and directionality of the relations but also the way they are obtained. We present then the benefits of combining them in order to overcome their respective drawbacks. Secondly, we present how these games allow a lexical learning for the users and lexical relation acquisition for the computer. Finally, the overall architecture of the system and the obtained information are described as well as their benefit for research in NLP. Those games allow to gather data on age level for terms and may help to constitute such a lexicon, that would be very useful for applications like text generation.

Yvan PETER, Sabine LEROY, Eric LEPRÊTRE

An Infrastructure for the Integration of Personal and Institutional Learning Environments(résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 18, 2011 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : TICE

Institutional learning environments are generally designed to fit organisational needs and objectives and take little consideration of learners needs and preferences. Meanwhile, the Web 2.0 service world is perpetually expending and has enabled the emergence of personal learning environments built in an ad hoc manner by learners. In our work, we are interested in the articulation of these two kinds of environments to enable learners to appropriate their learning. In this article we will more particularly present a prototype of the integration of pedagogical scenarios (institutional space) and a blog (personal space).

Jacqueline BOURDEAU ,Monique GRANDBASTIEN

Tutoring knowledge modeling in an ITS (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 18, 2011 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : TICE

This communication proposes a synthesis on the topic of modeling tutoring knowledge in intelligent tutoring systems. Its origins and challenges are exposed, as well as research results and tendencies. Issues of characterizing tutoring, defining it, identifying sources of knowledge, and modeling techniques are presented and discussed. A description of tutoring functions and variables is proposed, as well as hypotheses that have been formulated for design, implementation and evaluation of intelligent tutoring systems. The issue of adaptation, essential for intelligent tutoring systems, is privileged.

Valérie EMIN, Jean-Philippe PERNIN, Viviane GUERAUD

Intention-based design of pedagogical scenarios (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 18, 2011 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : TICE

This paper presents the core concepts of the ISiS model (Intentions, Strategies, and interactional Situations), a conceptual framework elaborated to structure the design of learning scenarios and promote sharing among teachers-designers. This model, co-elaborated with final targeted users and inspired by recent works in the field of goal-oriented requirement engineering, makes explicit the intentions and strategies of the designer. The ScenEdit environment enables practitioners to graphically design their scenarios making explicit the different dimensions associated with the ISiS model. ScenEdit aims at favouring sharing and reuse of practices by providing, for each type of model component, patterns issued from the literature and/or co-designed with practitioners. The model and the environment have been experimented with various groups of practitioners and evaluated from the point of view of utility and usability.

Florent Carlier, Valérie Renault

iFrimousse : Educational webportals augmented with mobile devices (résumé)(article)(pdf)

Volume 17, 2010 - article de recherche

In the context of educational devices, and in particular of Web portals, the learner and the tutor can be confused in front of the density of information, the evolution of the educational practices towards mobile supports and the difficulties of asynchronous interactions. Our problem is to increase the Web educational portals thanks to animated agents and to mobile supports to relocate synthetic information adapted to an actor (learner or tutor) in a certain context. We present an epiphyte architecture which overlaps on an already existing educational portal. We illustrate this work through two complementary scenarios, the one dedicated to the experiment of the mobility of the agent on a Moodle platform and the second in the help to the tutor via a mobile system, such as an iPhone.

Mariam Tanana, Nicolas Delestre

Assistance of diagnostic assessment of practical work in electronic with machine learning (résumé)(article)(pdf)

Volume 17, 2010 - article de recherche

In some domain, the know-how is essential for a good learning. But its assessment is often difficult especially with a great number of students. In this paper, we show that machine learning can help teachers to evaluate students' practical works in the domain of electronic. First of all, we will introduce our application domain and the methodological way the students follow to solve their problems. Then, we will present experimental data used to evaluate our methods. After some reminders about machine learning algorithms, and how to choose one in our context, we will propose a similarity measure used as summative assessment. Finally, we will show that the k-nn algorithm with learning database can be used to make diagnostic assessment.

Mathilde Alonso, Ludovic Auxepaules, Dominique Py

Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented
Modelling with UML Class Diagrams (résumé)(article)(pdf)

Volume 17, 2010 - article de recherche

This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling with UML class diagrams. Diagram reifies an interaction model that supports the learner’s metacognitive activity. This model relies on a task organization, on specific modelling graphic tools and on contextual helps. Diagram includes a diagnostic module which compares the student diagram with a reference diagram, and produces the list of the differences between these diagrams. The diagnostic algorithm is inspired from graph comparison methods, and uses structural patterns that direct the matching of the diagrams to be compared. The differences that are noticed in the student diagram give rise to feedbacks. We illustrate the whole feedback elaboration process by giving an example of a student diagram with the diagnostic results and the messages generated by the learning environment. We describe an experimentation in ecological context and analyze the effects of the feedbacks.

Sandoss Ben Abid-Zarrouk

Dropping out: inefficiencies of  online education. An analysis of the internal effectiveness of face to face learning, correspondence learning and e-learning in the context of the preparation of the DAEU diploma. (résumé)(article)(pdf)

Volume 17, 2010 - article de recherche

The aim of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of e-learning. We have compared three populations of student who prepare a French diploma called “Diplôme d’Accès aux Etudes Universitaires” which will allow them to follow courses at the university. Three modalities of courses are offered to prepare this diploma: an online or an evening-class or a correspondence courses. The results from this research indicate that drop is a key factor in estimating the internal efficiency. The chances of successful of online courses student are lower more than twice compared to correspondence courses student. Thus, with this mode of instruction for this audience in particular and this diploma, the chances of success are lower. However, if we do not take into account drop, the online education is as effective as correspondence courses or “face-to-face” courses.

Teresa Assude, Dominique Bessières, Delphine Combrouze, Catherine Loisy

Conditions for beginnings of Professional use concerning digital technologies in éducation (résumé)(article)(pdf)

Volume 17, 2010 - article de recherche

Many researches have underlined the difficulties linked to generalizing the implementing of Information and Communication Technologies in education, in a context strongly influenced by institutional injunctions. This article examines the beginnings of professional uses concerning digital technologies among teachers, and tries to analyze the conditions and constraints influencing these usage. The data-gathering is carried out in the field of teachers’ training and cross-checks the results of two research studies, which bring further data. A third research study is also used to put the results into perspective. The assumption made is that the relationship to change and the social representations of the subject are factors that influence the decisions implement digital technology in teaching. The analysis conveys another explanatory dimension of the choices: the players seem to be caught in a paradox linked to institutional decisions and orders.

Jean-Claude Regnier, Annick Pradeau

Social Interactions in Distance Education at University Level: A Microsociological Approach (résumé)(article)(pdf)

Volume 16, 2009 - article de recherche

This paper focuses on the organization of social interaction in an online training of university students. It was supposed that despite the distance between students, mutual interactions are rich and structured. Technical constraints and spatio-temporal characteristics influence on participants who participate in social interaction. The theoretical framework of this study is based on the theory of Erving Goffman. The traces of exchanges between six students engaged in collaborative learning on a forum for discussion of FORSE campus were observed. The exploratory dimension is complemented by an inferential process of reviewing the Goffmanian concepts to consider matching of specific field of interaction without physical copresence of participants. We propose to treat this digital environment to a new frame of experience where an interactional order is established which is better understood.

Patricia Gounon, Pascal Leroux

Modeling the organisation of the tutoring activity in order to assist the description of educational scenarios (résumé)(article)(pdf)

Volume 16, 2009 - article de recherche

The research presented in this paper focuses on the design of tutoring activity in the context of distance learning environments. Our problematic concerns the assistance for describing the tutoring activity. We aim to specify roles and tutor involvement and also to describe the tools supporting this activity. Using tutoring activity research studies in distance learning environments, we propose a model of tutoring organisation, called Triton. We describe the methodology for using Triton. We propose to extend two EMLs (IMS-LD and LDL) based on Triton. These two cases of study show the interest to enrich the tutoring scenario of the EMLS

Stéphanie Jean-Daubias, Carole Eyssautier-Bavay, Marie Lefevre

Models and tools to enable computational reuse of learners heterogeneous profiles. (résumé)(article)(pdf)

Volume 16, 2009 - article de recherche

In this paper, we present our work about reuse of learners profiles carried out within the PERLEA project. We address the issue of reuse of heterogeneous profiles by actors (human or software) different from their creators. These profiles can be pencil and paper or coming from software, they can be existing or to be created, and we don’t know they structure. Our approach consists in rewriting a posteriori the profiles in a common formalism thanks to semi-automatic processes. After a presentation of the model of learners profiles management process that we propose, we detail the profiles harmonization step, the profile modeling language that we established to allow this harmonization, and we show the tools we implemented to operationalize this process.

Alain Chaptal

The 24x32 Notebooks, Memoir on the state of educational technology and some international trends of change.(résumé)(article)(pdf)

Volume 16, 2009 - article de recherche

This article analyses the French situation concerning ICT in primary and secondary education (but also partly in higher education) through a comparison of the American and British ones. It will successively address the issues of the usage of ICT, of its educational efficiency, of the so-called new paradigm supposed to foster 21st Century skills. Then it will analyse the new Anglo-Saxon model for managing public education, stressing its ideological posture, and conclude with hidden hints of its influence to be found in some French official reports.

Tarek Djouad, Alain Mille, Christophe Reffay, Mohamed BenMohamed

Engineering of activity indicators using modelled traces for Computer Supported Collaborative Learning. (résumé)(article)(pdf)

Volume 16, 2009 - article de recherche

Designing and exploiting collaborative learning activities indicators is a strong challenge for technology-enhanced learning. We propose an original approach, guided by the models of interaction’s traces and exploited by Trace Based Management System. Designing an indicator consists in explicitly modelling the interaction’s trace in order to provide observables for it. Therefore, effective implementation of the indicator consists in explaining the needed transformations on available interaction’s traces (primary modelled traces), until being able to formulate the indicator computation. A «path» of transformations is explicitly designed and applied for both document and perform the calculation of the indicator. A library of enriched models indicators (platform independent) with their transformations sequence (context dependent) are available for reuse and share. Our approach is illustrated on the Moodle platform in order to explain the practical use of the proposed contribution for collaborative activities.

Jean-Jacques Quintin

Supporting small groups of learners in asynchronous e-learning environments : Tutoring modalities and tutor's models (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 15, 2008 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : ÉPAL

This experimental research aims at studying the effects of different modalities of tutor’s online interventions (MiT) on the learning outcomes of one hundred students involved in a cooperative learning setting (in groups of three). These modalities were elaborated by considering the dimensions of intervention which participate in tutorial accompaniment i.e. on a pedagogical (P), socio-emotional (S) and organizational (O) level. In addition to these three MiT focusing in turn on the specific dimension, S, O or P, two further non-specific modes of intervention were inserted as reference modalities: one reactive MiT and one proactive MiT. Since the results have indicated a contrasting impact of the different modalities of interventions, we shall attempt to determine their specificity as well as to understand the idiosyncratic models of intervention of each tutor.

Marie-Laure Betbeder, Maud Ciekanski, Françoise Greffier, Christophe Reffay, Thierry Chanier

Analysing synchronous multimodal interaction tracks from on-line learning: challenges and methodology (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 15, 2008 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : ÉPAL

Since the last decade, online synchronous audio-graphic learning environments which enable participants to communicate and collaborate in order to achieve a common task have become increasingly popular, particularly in the field of language acquisition. These online learning environments generate complex interactions between participants. Their analysis continues to intrigue researchers about their traces and their processing. The work presented in this paper concerns the methodology used to transcribe and analyze synchronous multimodal interactions coming from a particular online training session. We offer a description of the data-collection protocol, the original coding scheme to transcribe video data into a set of participant's actions, part of them being speech acts which occurred in the different modalities of the system (audio, textchat, text editing, and websites), the organization and the representation of such data. Two examples of analysis, at a macro scale and at a micro scale, give a glimpse of our results, from which the benefits and limits of such approaches and tools are discussed.

François Mangenot

Pedagogical affordances of computer conferencing systems
(résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 15, 2008 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : ÉPAL

Considering that the user-interface of a computer conferencing system (forum) affects how students work within this system, this paper analyzes the relationship between tool properties and user activities, based on data taken from several discussion forums in different learning contexts. The underlying topic consists in trying to establish a relationship between technological properties, common ICT-based practices and their related communicative purposes. The theoretical framework and the data corpus are first presented. The paper then discusses two dimensions of forum properties: firstly, their location inside a Learning Management System, particularly the path leading from the assignment to the forum, and secondly the overall messaging structure and file attachment possibilities. The scope is twofold: determining whether some features seem more desirable in certain learning contexts and making a few suggestions for improving forum properties.

Philippe Teutsch, Francis Bangou, Charlotte Dejean-Thircuir

Accessing and analysing online interactions: The case of ViCoDiLi.
(résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 15, 2008 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : ÉPAL

This article focuses on the traces of interactions between students and tutors during an online training. We examine both, the issues of access to these traces as well as their manipulation by the researcher. This reflection was guided by the need to access the data of an online course that became unavailable at some point. This challenge resulted in the development of a tool called Visualizing the Content of Online Interactions (ViCoDiLi) that enables both the access to the formatted traces of online interactions (forum, chat and email), and their examination with diverse display features. The project aimed at providing tools for the researcher's activities. The objective is to provide both a model of data access and tools to assist the data corpus analysis. This article highlights the theoretical, technical and methodological issues raised by the development of such a tool.

Jean Simon, Jean-Paul Gérard, Claudine Thévenin

Folders shared by the trainees with or without trainer at the teachers ' school of La Réunion : Trace analysis. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 15, 2008 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : ÉPAL

Since September 2005, the Teachers College of La Réunion uses a CSCW platform (BSCW). In this paper we analyze the behaviour and actions of the primary trainee on this platform according to the type of group they belong to: groups made up of only peers or groups made up of peers and trainers. The second type (including trainers) should be more restricted than the first. We wish to compare the peers’ role and participation in each of these types of groups: free or restricted. This analysis is based on the traces left on the platform. In this paper, we also offer a definition of the "higher level shared folder" which is used as the unit of analysis. Such an entity reflects the activity of a group working jointly to solve a problem. In the discussion, we reconsider the limits of the method employed and the results obtained.

Christophe Reffay, Thierry Chanier, Muriel Noras, Marie-Laure Betbeder

Structuring teaching and learning corpora for a better research sharing. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 15, 2008 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : ÉPAL

When analyzing situated interactions in online learning, one should link the data to some contextual information of the learning situation. This is an essential condition if we wish to construct a research object that would become usable by various research teams and disciplines and that would enable replication of experiments and cumulative or contrastive analysis. Interaction data are generally not contextualised, not exhaustive or simply not freely accessible. We define a “Learning & Teaching Corpus” as the description of its five required components: research protocol, learning design, structured interaction data (interactions, productions and log files), licence and analysis. The resulting structure makes this corpus usable by the research community and permits the capitalisation of analyses. This proposition is illustrated by the construction of a data corpus based on an authentic learning situation named “Simuligne”. This work is then discussed according to different viewpoints: ethical and rights issues, standardisation efforts in the distance learning community and the new trends on track analysis tools interoperability.

France Henri, Daniel Peraya, Bernadette Charlier

Research on Computer Conferencing in Educational Context. Quality Criteria
and Quality of Practice  (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - article de recherche

From a methodological and theoretical perspective, this article analyses the problematic of research on computer conferencing in an educational context from three characteristics aspects: the diversity of disciplinary approaches, the complexity of the object under study, and the uncertain appropriateness of the criteria used to judge the scientific quality of researches. From this problematic, an interpretation framework is developed allowing for the differentiation of researches and their evaluation based on appropriate criteria.

Julien Broisin, Philippe Vidal

A model driven approach for tracking users' activities within heterogeneous learning environments. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Analyses des traces d’utilisation dans les EIAH

Nicolas Delestre, Nicolas Malandain

Two-dimensional graphic representation and analysis of learners’ traces. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Analyses des traces d’utilisation dans les EIAH

The learner follow-up in problem solving is a hard issue. It is more difficult when there are a lot of learners or when those learners use distance learning. We propose in this paper a two-dimensional graphic representation of student's traces. To achieve this goal, we use and modify numerical analysis algorithms (automatic dimensionality reduction algorithms like Self Organizing Map and Stochastic Neighbour Embedding). We also propose a new distance between sets whose elements have semantic similarity. Finally, we validate and improve our algorithm with simulated data and experimental data.

Hamid Chaachoua, Marie-Caroline Croset, Denis Bouhineau, Marilena Bittar, Jean-François Nicaud

Description and uses of the traces in the Aplusix learning environment. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Analyses des traces d’utilisation dans les EIAH

This article is about the place of traces in education and legitimates their use in TEL. The first part presents the Aplusix learning environment which allows students to freely make calculation steps, as they do in the paper environment, and which records all the students’ actions in logs. From these logs, visualisation and statistics are built. The second part is about local diagnostic of the learner and production of enriched trace: a student’s transformation is diagnosed with a sequence of rewriting rules. A library of correct and incorrect rules has been built for that purpose. The third part is about global model of the learner in the field of the movement concept in equations and inequations.

Christophe Choquet et Sébastien Iksal

Modelling and Designing Tracks for a Learning Activity: a Language Approach for TEL Reegineering (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Analyses des traces d’utilisation dans les EIAH

In the context of distance learning and teaching, the re-engineering process needs a feedback on the learners' usage of the learning system. The feedback is given by numerous vectors, such as interviews, questionnaires, videos or log files. We consider that it is important to interpret tracks in order to compare the designer’s intentions with the learners’ activities during a session. In this paper, we present the usage tracking language – UTL. This language was designed to be generic and we present an instantiation of a part of it with IMS-Learning Design, the representation model we chose for our three years of experiments. At the end of the paper, we describe several use cases of this language, based on our experimentations.

Emmanuel Blanchard, Claude Frasson

A Game-Like Intelligent Tutoring System for the enhancement of learners’ s motivation (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les Dimensions émotionnelles de l'interaction dans un EIAH

In this paper we discuss recommendations to facilitate conception and development of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) that will be able to maintain and/or enhance learners’ motivation during learning sessions. Those recommendations are based on the self determination theory. This theory proposes three basic psychological needs, whose satisfaction will determine individual’s quality of motivation. Those needs refer to the autonomy, competence and relatedness felt by an individual. An ITS inspired by these recommendations is presented and results of an exploratory evaluation of this system are provided in order to support our design recommendations.

Damien Cram, Denis Jouvin, Alain Mille

Interactive Trace Visualization for Reflexivity: Application to the synchronous collaborative e-learning platform eMediatheque (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Analyses des traces d’utilisation dans les EIAH

This paper presents an interactive visualization tool for interaction traces, in the context of a synchronous collaborative e-learning activity. This tool has been developed by an e-learning company, eLycée, in collaboration with a research team working on e-learning, interaction traces, and experience reuse. This work adopts the grounding hypothesis that metacognitive processes and reflexive activities can facilitate learning. The paper presents the specific issues of such usage trace construction and visualization, the design of the hosting collaborative synchronous platform, and the associated tools and underlying models properties. This tool has so far not been experimented with students, but the technical tests with various researchers have been very promising and encountered a wide acceptance. The paper also points out the generic aspects of the tracing mechanisms, and the possibility for the student, teacher and designer to configure, update and extend it dynamically.

Mohamed GAHA, Daniel DUBOIS, Roger NKAMBOU

Proposition for emotional processing in a "conscious" ITS (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les Dimensions émotionnelles de l'interaction dans un EIAH

Recent studies reveal that emotions have much to do with learner's performances. Consequently, e-learning systems should integrate emotional capabilities in order to optimize learners' experience. This paper presents CTS, our cognitive agent as it is applied to tutoring. Based on Baars' Global Workspace theory on mind and consciousness, CTS mimics the processing accomplished by the brain. Its highly distributed competence lets the agent consider concurrently multiple information sources and analyse a situation from various points of view. Central to this paper is a proposed extension to CTS' emotional processing. It should allow CTS to take into consideration manifestations of learners' emotions along with his evolving knowledge. This aims both at adapting its pedagogical or didactical interventions, and at playing on learner's emotional state to obtain better proficiency.

Emmanuel Duplàa

Emotions: tools and social bodies for online learning. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les Dimensions émotionnelles de l'interaction dans un EIAH

This paper proposes considering emotions bodily and socially. After we will have presented neuroscience and artificial intelligence researches, we are going to introduce an historic of the emotions’ theory. The understanding of this theory will lead us to put forward the hypothesis that emotion could be considered as an interface between human body and social relationship. Experimentation on online trainers’ training provided us with an opportunity to observe some cases where people manage their emotions in online situation as we had pretended previously. We conclude that the link between emotion and cognition is embodied in online communication tools which must be organized specifically for online learning.

Mohamedade Farouk, Jean-Hugues Réty, Élisabeth Delozanne, Brigitte Grugeon, Nelly Bensimon, Jean-Claude Martin

Gazing strategies in teacher-student dialog (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les Dimensions émotionnelles de l'interaction dans un EIAH

This paper studies multimodal communication between a teacher and a learner. Our long term goal is to specify the behavior of an animated pedagogical agent in a tutoring system. Our methodological approach is based on video corpora annotation. Dyadic interactions between teachers and learners were recorded. We worked with the Pepite tutoring system that assesses the level in algebra of students aged 15-16. We defined an annotation schema applied to a part of the videos. Statistical analysis of the annotations allows for capturing different strategies in the way the teacher uses gaze depending on students’ level and on pedagogical acts.

Emmanuelle Villiot-Leclercq

The method of Pleiads: a formalism to facilitate learning scenarios transferability and instrumentation.  (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - article de recherche

Our work is situated in the context of TEL (Technology Enhanced Learning) research. It concerns more particularly the instrumented educational design and scenarisation field. In this context, our research problem was the expression modalities of learning scenarios which would allow a scenario to be easily reusable by teachers and educational designers. Our research methodology is based on a double approach: a modelling approach and a user centered approach. It aims at the elaboration of theoretical models in interaction with the educational practitioners and it integrates evaluations at the different modelling stages. We present in this article two additional researches: an exploratory research on formalisms for the expression of the scenarios which led to us to the construction of a method, the method of Pleiads, which allows the explicitation of the teachers’ intentions and facilitates the learning scenario transferability.

Cyrille Baudouin, Michel Beney, Pierre Chevaillier, Agnès Le Pallec

Recording traces to monitor learners’ activity during lab work sessions in a virtual reality environment. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Analyses des traces d’utilisation dans les EIAH

This work is part of a project which intends to build a virtual work surface for lab work. Our aim is to monitor and analyse learner’s activity in such environments in order to model it and to improve learning. Virtual Reality allows a lot of various activities to take place, leading to a high amount of observables. We proposed an environment for detecting and recording traces needed to analyze the learners’ activity. We also detailed a model which enables the identification of learners’ actions and processes. The virtual work surface has been built using Mascaret. In this virtual environment for learning, each object, action and event is an instance of a formal meta-model. This model allows us to formally define every observable corresponding to the traces. This study points out the specificities of trace analysis regarding lab work in virtual reality.

Jacques Lonchamp

A conceptual and technological framework for building CSCL environments (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - article de recherche

Effective dissemination of computer-supported collaborative learning requires replacing a first generation of ad hoc, specialized, and closed tools with generic, open, and malleable environments. Moreover, these environments should be integrated into larger systems aiming at supporting the communities of interest and communities of practice necessary for educating and guiding interested teachers. This paper firstly describes a conceptual framework for collaborative learning. It then proposes a functional architecture conveying that vision and finally a system that implements that architecture.

Soumaya Chaffar, Claude Frasson

Using machine learning techniques to predict the learner's emotional reaction (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - Article de Recherche

Numéro spécial : Les Dimensions émotionnelles de l'interaction dans un EIAH

Emotions play a crucial role in cognitive processes in particular in learning tasks (Isen, 2000). However, the emotional factor has been never taken into account in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) until recently. Nevertheless, modelling the learner’s emotional reaction is fundamental for ITSs in order to aid the tutor to anticipate when and how to intervene for helping the learner to achieve learning in the best conditions. In this paper, we attempt to predict the learner’s emotional reaction at a given time of the learning process. Our approach of prediction relays on the causal events which could trigger this emotion and on its determining factors like the personality for example. Thus, we propose to solve this problem by using supervised machine learning algorithms and more precisely those of classification.

Élisabeth Delozanne, Françoise Le Calvez, Agathe Merceron, Jean-Marc Labat

Towards a Pattern Language for Learners' Assessment in e-Learning Systems (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - article de recherche

This paper presents a structured set of 17 Design Patterns (DP for short). These DPs target the design of learning systems that assess learners while solving problems, for example problems in mathematics, logic or programming. Learners' assessment is a three step approach: first collect and analyse data while a learner solves a problem, second overview of a learner's activity across a set of exercises and third overview of the activity of a group of learners on a set of exercises. This set of DPs has emerged as a way of capitalizing on the work done by the co-authors while sharing their experience in this area. We show that these DPs do account for other experiences taken from the literature. In our opinion, writing sets of DPs is a way to facilitate communication in pluridisciplinary teams for the design of e-learning systems, to create a research memory, and to training and education in the field. The present set is a step in that direction.

Chieu Vu Minh, Elie Milgrom

Towards an operational approach for evaluating ICT-based learning environments. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 14, 2007 - article de recherche

Constructivism is a learning theory which states that people learn by actively constructing their own knowledge, based on prior knowledge. A significant number of ICT-based constructivist learning systems have been proposed in recent years. A critical problem related to the design and use of this kind of systems has been the lack of practical means for evaluating the actual conformity of such systems with constructivist principles. Our research aims to help designing truly constructivist learning environments. For that purpose, we have proposed a set of operational criteria for certain aspects of constructivism and we have used them as a useful framework both for designing and for analyzing learning environments. In this paper, we present and discuss three approaches, including ours, which are based on criteria to facilitate the evaluation of constructivist learning environments.

Mohamed SIDIR, Nadine LUCAS, Emmanuel GIGUET

From discourse analysis to the structural analysis of the networks : a
diachronic study of an educationnal forum (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 13, 2006 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Forum de discussion en éducation

This paper addresses the problem of the online discussion forums used within the ODL framework of the University of Picardie. We sought to gauge the social structures the learners are setting up in this communication environment and to analyse the collective speech related to it, through a double approach, a qualitative one based on two discourse analysis methods and a quantitative one inspired by the structural analysis of the social networks. First, the linguistic analysis of the discourse underlined the different phases that frame the discussions as well as the apparition of dialectical exchanges after 18 months of debates. Secondly, the analysis carried out with ThemAgora software shows a progression of the discourse on the training processes. These networks compose a most special social structure with self-organising tendencies and try to free themselves from any institutional constraints.

Sandra NOGRY, Stéphanie JEAN-DAUBIAS, Nathalie GUIN-DUCLOSSON

How to combine evaluation techniques for the design of interactive
learning environments :lessons learned from the design of the ILE Ambre-add

(résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 13, 2006 - article de recherche

This paper deals with the evaluation to conduct during the iterative design of an ILE. During the design of an ILE a set of aspects of the system must be evaluated: usability, utility and acceptance; in this aim, a set of evaluation techniques already exists. For the design of the ITS AMBRE-add, several techniques were combined in order to evaluate and refine the system. In this paper, the approach we adopted to evaluate AMBRE-add is described and analysed in order to specify its contributions and its limits. Finally we propose a general approach of evaluation to be implemented during iterative design of an ILE.

Christophe REFFAY, Luigi, LANCIERI

Quantitative analysis of discussion forums. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 13, 2006 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Forum de discussion en éducation

This article merges two viewpoints concerning the quantitative analysis of discussion forums. First, we present recent results on forums studies, implying large groups with a high activity level. We propose indicators based on the data produced by user's activity that allow to identify and to qualify the usage of the forum in such groups. In this context, even if statistically representative, these indicators stay somehow impersonal. In the second viewpoint we apply similar methodologies to smaller and closed groups where each member is explicitly engaged and clearly identified. We focus on the social networks analysis. We discuss its transposition in an environment of remote communication. Beyond the convergence of the two presented approaches, we show that they can be used in a positive way in order to explore other contexts using collaborative environments.

Sébastien GEORGE, Cécile BOTHOREL

Design of communication tools for an educational context (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 13, 2006 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Forum de discussion en éducation

In a distance learning context, providing usual communication tools (forum, chat, ...) is not always enough to create efficient interactions between learners and to favour collective knowledge building. A solution consists in setting-up collective activities which encourage learners to communicate. But, even in that case, tools can sometimes become a barrier to communication. We present in this paper examples of specific tools that are designed in order to favour and to guide communications in an educational context, but also to foster interactions during learning activities that are not inherently collaborative. We describe synchronous communication tools (semi-structured chat), asynchronous tools (temporally structured forum, contextual forum) and a system which promotes mutual aid between learners.

Angélique DIMITRACOPOULOU, Éric BRUILLARD

Enrich forum interfaces by visualization of interaction analysis' outputs. (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 13, 2006 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Forum de discussion en éducation

Even if asynchronous discussion forums are currently used in education, the underlying research continues focusing more on the improvement of the basic functionalities than to a better awareness of exchanges, interactions and emerging content. This paper explores a new research direction in the design of technology based learning environments: computer based interaction analysis in educational forums. The aim is to contribute in the design of enriched forums’ interfaces allowing alternative representations of posted messages, and to provide support on the awareness of participants’ contributions via multiple and diversified visualisations of interaction analysis indicators, offering a metacognitive assistance to forum participants (students, tutors, moderators), as well as a cognitive assistance to observers of interactions (teachers, researchers, etc.).

Eric JAMET

A presentation of main methods of evaluating CSLE in cognitive psychology (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 13, 2006 - article de recherche

The aim of this article is to present a series of methods used in cognitive psychology to evaluate CSLE. In this field of study, the use of experimental methods and the gathering of various behavioural indices make it possible to obtain objective indicators of the effectiveness for learning of a CEHL. After theorical elements relative to learning, we will present the evaluation tools that are most frequently used in this field while distinguishing between measurements taken before or after learning.

Aurélie LAINE, Alexandra WALLNE, Annick WEIL-BARAIS

Assessment of an educational software in two communicational contexts : face to face and distant synchronous textual communication (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 13, 2006 - article de recherche

In this paper, we compare peer interactions in two collaborative contexts (synchronous textual communication and face-to-face communication) involving either 14-year-old students or university students, who had to build a concept map with an educational software (ModellingSpace). The research methodology of the two studies reported is based on the factors influencing peer interactions in educational context. The first study involved 22 pairs of university student (3rd year of study in psychology); half of them communicated face-to-face and the other group used computer-supported communication. The distant communication condition has been experimented in the second study, with 16 pairs of secondary school students. The structure and content of verbal interactions were the focus of analysis. Results show that the mode of communication has an impact on the structure of the interactions, but not on the content. This difference does not affect the quality of the concept maps. The adults and teenagers’ exchanges present the same structure but differ in their content. These results are discussed in relation with the issue of the assessment of educational software

Jean BRESSON, Fabrice GUÉDY, Gérard ASSAYAG

Musique Lab Maquette: an interactive approach of compositional
processes for music education (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 13, 2006 - article de recherche

This article presents an application dedicated to music education and based on computer-aided composition technologies. Various aspects of compositional processes are considered from a pedagogical point of view: creation and manipulation of musical material and objects, transformation of these objects, and organization in global musical forms. These different aspects are embedded in a pedagogical document, which provides the support to develop complete and interactive demonstrations of musical concepts and pieces.

Jérôme LEHUEN, Sylwia KITLINSKA

Network Global Simulation for Learning French as a Second Language -
The MEPA-2D Platform (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 13, 2006 - article de recherche

This article deals with Role Playing Game (RPG) environments for language learning. From a short state-of-the-art, a set of criteria is put forward in order to specify environments to support the communicative practice of a foreign language in the context of RPG activities. Then, MEPA-2D is described. It is a new RPG platform dedicated to foreign language training. It is based on a server system infrastructure which allows learners, teachers, and software agents to act and to interact remotely in a shared virtual world. Eventually, the first test campaign is presented. The latter has been carried out in several contexts and with a varied public. Then, some research perspectives are put forward

Mônica MACEDO-ROUET, Sandrine CHARLES, Muriel NEY, Christophe BATIER, Lionel HUMBLOT, Eddy MARQUEZ, Geneviève LALLICH-BOIDIN

Using a Web site to teach Mathematics at the university level-effects on students' performance and motivation (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 13, 2006 - article de recherche

Many French universities have recently designed educational Web sites with the aim of modernizing teaching and to improve students' motivation. Do students learn better with such tools? Are they more satisfied and motivated? We conducted an experiment to assess the efficiency of an educational Web site, in terms of performance in solving exercises though information search, and of satisfaction. Contrary to our predictions, but in line with other studies, students who used the Web site had lower scores than those who used a paper version of the materials. The majority of the students indicated that they prefer to print the documents instead of reading online, but the Web site's design is perceived as more pleasant. We discuss the consequences of the results for university teaching.

Amel BOUZEGHOUB, Bruno DEFUDE, John-Freddy DUITAMA, Claire LECOCQ

A semantic description of learning objects based on an ontology (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 12, 2005 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Conceptions et usages des plates-formes de formation

The number of learning objects available on the Internet has significantly grown these last years and the problem of indexing and searching these learning objects is becoming crucial. Standards and norms of educative metadata such as LOM and SCORM have been proposed to handle this problem but in our opinion these proposals are not a satisfactory solution. In this paper, we propose to extend these standards with a semantic description of learning objects based on an ontology. A learning object is described by prerequisites, a content and an acquisition function. This allows defining powerful search tools and improves reusing. For reusing, we propose to define new learning objects by assembling existing objects. Assembling is specified by a composition graph composed by learning objects and composition operators (sequence, parallel, and alternative). In order to improve flexibility, we have introduced intentional objects. An intentional object is defined by a composition graph where (at least) one object has been replaced by an intentional query on the learning object repository. This model is used during the adaptive process of a learning object for a specific learner. We define a notion of quality on learning objects which mainly reflects their ability to reuse. This quality may be evaluated a posteriori using metrics on objects or controlled a priori using a type system. Our model has been implemented with Sesame, a RDF database which support SeRQL a powerful query language for RDF and RDFS.

Issam REBAI, Nicolas MAISONNEUVE, Jean-Marc LABAT

A repository to store software components useful for Interaction Learning Environments (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 12, 2005 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Conceptions et usages des plates-formes de formation

Although there are numerous research works in France about e-learning environments with a great quality, their visibility is rather weak. This is due to the difficulty to construct operational environment, with enough development to be experimented in the real world. The problem is that one need to develop a lot of complementary software in order to test a tool. Very often, these tools exist somewhere, but without being referenced. To avoid this shortcoming, these tools must be described and indexed in a repository, or in a set of distributed repositories. In this paper, we present the design and the implementation of such a repository, dedicated to components for designing e-learning environments. We also propose a metadata schema to describe them, inspired of existing schema such LOM, but with some complements, due to the fact that there are software components.

Thomas VANTROYS, Yvan PETER

COW, a service supporting pedagogical scenarios (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 12, 2005 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Conceptions et usages des plates-formes de formation

This article deals with supporting the execution of pedagogical scenarios in Learning Management Systems by the means of a workflow service. It takes an engineering point of view to identify actors, design and use processes. Based on this point of view, we define the characteristics of a service to support the actors and the pedagogical scenarios. Then, we present the design and the implementation of Cooperative Open Workflows (COW), the flexible workflow based execution service we have developed.

Marilyne ROSSELLE, Marie-Noelle BESSAGNET, Thibault CARRON

Reusing Available (educational) Software developed by CAL (Computer Assisted Learning) Researchers? (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 12, 2005 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Conceptions et usages des plates-formes de formation

This article tackles the problem of educational software re-use in research purpose. Theses pieces of software are prototypes or environments developed by other research teams. After having analyzed the requirements to integrate educational software in order to build an experiment, we argue around an integration architecture proposition. Our requirement analysis ensues on a presentation of the various possible dimensions of integration. Towards these dimensions, we present five case studies stemming from the French community. Based on theses case studies, handling interoperability and integration issues, we illustrate the set of problems collectively studied within the “Action Spécifique Plateformes” group. We conclude by proposing a guide of good practices for integration.

Julien BROISIN, Philippe VIDAL

A Computing Environment for Human Learning dedicated to Learning Object
Virtualization (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 12, 2005 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Conceptions et usages des plates-formes de formation

This article investigates the capabilities of a Computing Environment for Human Learning (CEHL) to provide two complementary services that lead to the learning objects virtualization: a single view of a set of resources stored in various Learning Object Repositories (LOR), and an easy access to these resources through the use of Learning Management Systems (LMS). We present an open architecture based on ubiquitous e-learning standards which allows to integrate the above services within a CEHL. Then we expose the means offered by our learning context to automatically generate LOM metadata, thus making it easier to index new learning objects within LOR. Two experiments deployed in various contexts validate our approach and contribute to learning objects' share and reuse.

Fabrice VANDEBROUCK, Claire CAZES

Analysis of students'log files: didactic aspects (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 12, 2005 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Conceptions et usages des plates-formes de formation

Users of a learning platforms are usually required to log in, that provides a great deal of data. The general question studied here is: how to exploit this data to help the different actors involved? At first let us introduce the platform and the experiments we conducted. Then we use a didactic model to produce a qualitative analysis from the quantitative data collected. A simple exercise classification emerges from the construction of two indicators. It is consistent with the different experiments and relevant to the a priori didactic analysis. That allows us to organize results and perspectives according to the exercise classification and adapted to each role: designer, didactic researcher, and teacher.

Pierre LAFORCADE, Thierry NODENOT, Christian SALLABERRY

A UML-based Instructional Modeling Language (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 12, 2005 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Conceptions et usages des plates-formes de formation

This article presents our results about an exploratory research work on the potential add-ons of the UML formalism for the design and implementation of distant learning situations. Our work focus on the specific Problem-Based Learning situations but could be suitable for other learning theories and approaches. Then we propose the CPM language based on a UML profile specialization in order to describe instructional design models upstream formal ones specified with standards like IMS-LD. Our language is implemented within an existent UML-CASE tool which has been customized in order to experiment end-users (instructional designers) facilities for the creation/support/maintenance of CPM models. The language has been tested on a complete case-study. We also briefly present and discuss additional works extending our contribution beyond the design stage. From these results, we stress the potentials of a Model-Driven instructional approach.

Yolaine BOURDA, Nicolas DELESTRE

Increase the interoperability of LOM application profiles (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 12, 2005 - article de recherche

Numéro spécial : Conceptions et usages des plates-formes de formation

The IEEE LOM is now standardized since July 2002 but it is not the only one standard used to describe learning objects. Application profiles based on the LOM and other educational metadata schemas coexist. This established fact leads to a lack of interoperability between descriptions based on different schemas. To solve this problem, we propose a solution based on the ISO 11179 standard, allowing the description of a conceptual level independently of any particular representation. Thus, each educational metadata schema can be specified as an "instantiation" of a unique educational conceptual level linking them.

Alain CORBIERE, Christophe CHOQUET

ODP-RM : Reengineering Framework for Systems in Education (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 12, 2005 - article de recherche
Numéro spécial : Conceptions et usages des plates-formes de formation

Specifications recently proposed as standards in the domain of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL), question the designers of TEL systems on how to put them into practice. Recent studies in Model Driven Engineering have highlighted the need for a framework which could formalise the use of these specifications as well as enhance the quality of the developments for the TEL community. This paper deals with the opportunity for the TEL community to adopt the ISO/ODP-RM model (International Organization for Standardization/Open Distributed Processing - Reference Model), to express and formalise the design organisation and the engineering process of a TEL system. Such a model provides a set of concepts allowing the description of specification, modelisation and observation tasks one needs to perform to define the negotiation and the communication between actors in such a community. In a first part, we stress the need for the instantiation of this framework so as to integrate the specifications to TEL (such as SCORM, LOM or IMS/LD) as well as taking into account the evolution of software reengineering. In a second part, we propose two instances of this framework; the first is dedicated to the retro design and the second to the reengineering of a TEL system.

Sonia MANDIN, Philippe DESSUS, Benoît LEMAIRE

Effect of an informative assessment on note-taking performance within an ILE (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 12, 2005 - article de recherche

This article assesses the computerized feedback effects due to the qualities of notes taken during the reading of a lesson. By inducing the connection between the existing knowledge and the information of a read lesson, the note-taking process entails a disturbing reorganization of knowledge. With an experimental approach, we describe the effects due to an inquiry feedback about the existing knowledge on the note’s content (their similarity with the lesson text and their textual coherence). The similarity and the coherence are evaluated by the latent semantic analysis (LSA) applied to a large textual corpus. Despite our expectations, we don’t find effects due to feedback but effects due to the familiarity of the participants with the domain of the lesson.

Brigitte de La PASSARDIÈRE, Pierre JARRAUD

ManUeL, a LOM application profile for C@mpuSciences® (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 11, 2004 - article de recherche

In this paper, we present ManUeL, a LOM application profile, which has been developed to index learning resources in the C@mpuSciences® project. We justify the choices made in order to take into account the context of our community of practice within "Université en Ligne" (UeL) - e.g. online university. We also detail the profile which is fully compatible with LOM, the IEEE standard for learning objects. We then present Metalab, the metadata editor implementing this profile and illustrate the use of this metadata set by means of examples extracted from the UeL resources. Finally, from this work, we draw some conclusions on the adequacy of the profile and more generally on the use of LOM for the indexation of learning objects.

Gilles FALQUET, Luka NERIMA, Jean-Claude ZISWILER

Using Ontologies in Collaborative Hyperbook Writing Environments: Experiments and Perspectives (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 11, 2004 - article de recherche
Numéro spécial : Ontologies pour les EIAH

To support a pedagogical approach based on the collaborative writing of hyperbooks, we have developed several hyperbook models and systems based on the virtual document idea. In these hyperbooks, domain ontologies are used to organize the information contents and to infer interface documents. This article first presents our hyperbook models, together with observations made when using them with student. Then we discuss some of the lessons we have drawn about the use of ontologies in these environments. These lessons concern both the engineering of hyperbooks and the creation of domain ontologies. Finally we show how to use ontologies to extend the hyperbook concept to take into account several points of view, to integrate hyperbooks into a library of hyperbooks, to personalize hyperbooks, and to generate documentation about a topic.

Emmanuel SANDER, Jean-Marc MEUNIER, Christelle BOSC-MINÉ

Ontological approach and navigation within a C.E.H.L (article) (pdf)

Volume 11, 2004 - article de recherche
Numéro spécial : Ontologies pour les EIAH

Some results of work in cognitive psychology invite to the construction of a computer environment of human learning (C.E.H.L.) based on an explicit representation of knowledge of the cognitive organization concerned. This approach privileges forms of acquisition which are freed from some of the constraints of linearity which generally guide the courses of training. The method suggested here supports acquisitions of relations of class inclusion between concepts, which are fundamental in learning situations. The technical side of this teaching approach consists in allowing the learner to navigate within an ontology of the field. An C.E.H.L. based on these principles is under development within the framework of the remote teaching of the statistics in psychology with the Distance teaching institute of the University Paris 8. It is presented in order to illustrate the approach.

Richard FAERBER

Characterisation of collaborative learning situations (article) (pdf)

Volume 11, 2004 - article de recherche
Numéro spécial : Ontologies pour les EIAH

The aim of this article is to describe learning situation statements as they are produced by teachers implied in distance learning. A statement presents problems and specifies the goal to be reached by learners. It can be considered as a learning object embedded in a social and a technical environment and connected to other resources. As such, a learning situation statement is a resource which can be re-used in different learning contexts and in other devices (EIAH) provided it is described in a metadata diagram. After having defined the concept of learning situation and made a typology, we will characterize its statement by putting it to the test of existing diagrams. In spite of its limits, we will adopt in this article the structure of metadata of the LOM v1.0 and propose a new category. Among the set of concepts that may fit explicitly or implicitly in the learning situation statement, we will particularly considers those dealing with collaborative learning and we will discuss issues such as : constitution of learning teams, nature and distribution of the tasks, roles within the teams and evaluation.

Jean ROBILLARD

Ontologies: Antinomies, Contradictions and other Epistemological Difficulties with the Concept (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 11, 2004 - article de recherche
Numéro spécial : Ontologies pour les EIAH

This article studies the concept of ontology used in cognitive science (CS). The logic of the subject and its methodological significance will be given the most attention. The thesis is that apart from having high epistemological aims and running counter to philosophic sensibility, the concept of ontology used in CS contradicts itself.

Dominique LECLET

Interactive Environment for Vocational Training : an Approach Based on Cases (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 11, 2004 - article de recherche

This communication presents the synthesis of researches about decision making in various job contexts and genesis of work currently undertaken within the laboratory Sa.So (knowledge and socialization in education and training). The objective aims at going up how the introduction of Communication and Information Technologies into the Educational systems comes to enrich distance Education. Three situations have been studied, the medical diagnosis, the catering duty and the multimedia design. A model of the experts behaviour, common to the three domains has been put into evidence. It combines deductive and inductive reasoning. This model definition is followed by a formalisation under the didactic, the conceptual and the logic viewpoints. It enables to set up a general frame for the training to decision making: the case based simulation. Examples implementations are then given in order to make concrete the previous theoretical approach.

Viviane GUÉRAUD, Jean-Michel ADAM, Jean-Philippe PERNIN, Gaëlle CALVARY, Jean-Pierre DAVID

Remote Learning Usage of Interactive Pedagogical Objects : the FORMID project (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 11, 2004 - article de recherche

This paper describes a joint research of the ARCADE and IHM teams. The ARCADE team is interested by creation and distant exploitation of active training situations. The goal is to assist the trainer in his authoring role during the creation phase, and in his tutoring role during the exploitation phase in the context of a virtual classroom. The concept of pedagogical scenario is a key element between these two phases : trainers use it to propose to learners precise activities on Interactive Pedagogical Objects (OPIs : simulations, micro-worlds...) ; we use it to assist trainers in their classroom monitoring task. The FORMID project has resulted in a computer platform implementing concretely these proposals.We first present the conceptual models which we use to implement learning situations based on exploitation of OPIs. We consider next the phase of creation of learning situations, with the presentation of the scenario authoring tool and of the mechanisms and tools used by a scenario to control an OPI. We then study the exploitation phase and we show which functions the tutor needs for remote monitoring. We detail the original proposals of the FORMID project. Finally, we present the FORMID platform : its software architecture, the design of its interfaces, and the resulting man-machine interfaces.

Bruno DESHOULLIERES, Stéphanie MOREAU, Mahieddine DJOUDI,
Jérôme DINET

IPinfo, an information and communication system for the teaching of information literacy (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 11, 2004 - article de recherche

 

With an exploratory study conducted with more than three hundred science students of a French university (Poitiers), we have investigated the impacts related to the use of a new Internet platform (called IPinfo). This platform have been designed to develop and to improve the cooperation and the collaboration between users : science students, their teachers and several scientific experts. In this paper we described first the architecture and the functionalities of the IPinfo system which comprises several components including management of the relations among users and databases. Second, we present results obtained with our impact study. Thru the use of Likert scale questionnaires, and for two groups of students (with vs. without the use of IPinfo system), we have compared the perceptions of their teaching. We have also assessed the opinion of users group about services offer by the platform (group with only). Results shown that if the global perception of the students on their teaching is not influenced by the use of the platform IPinfo, on the other A? hand, quite expected effects are generated, like distance work for example.

Richard HOTTE, Pascal LEROUX

Technologies and distance education (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 10, 2003 - article de recherche

In this paper, our aims is to clarify the university contexts and underlying instructional approaches in which on-line education works are engaged and the influence of these contexts on this same works. This positioning should facilitate the reading, interpretation and understanding of the articles of this special issue, as well as ensure the intelligibility of the current trends on the distance education. We want to make sure that the contributions to this issue are within the reach of both French-speaking academic cultures, France and Quebec. We have the feeling that there are significant differences between French and Quebecer experiences concerning the distance education and the use of ICT in education.

Gilbert PAQUETTE, Jacqueline BOURDEAU, France HENRI, Josianne BASQUE, Michel LEONARD, Marcelo MAINA

Building a Knowledge Base and a Resource Repository for the Telelearning Domain (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 10, 2003 - article de recherche

This article sets the foundation for the development of a knowledge base and a resource (learning object) repository in the domain of telelearning, enabling researchers to reference resources in this domain using standard specifications based on domain ontology and to integrate them according to a set of research or teaching activities. The resources are referenced with metadata based on domain ontology and their search is guided by use cases describing activities where these resources are used or produced. The ontology and the use cases are defined using a graphical knowledge representation system. We conclude by generalizing this approach through the description of a general process applicable to a diversity of knowledge domains.

Nathalie MASSEUX

Modelization of a Remote Individual Synchronous Didactical Interaction (RISDI) (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 10, 2003 - article de recherche

Our goal is to grasp the “real time” complexity of a didactical interaction supported by computer. The experiments, instrumented by a device of video-communication and shared environment of work, led us to specify the concomitant influences of technological and human determinants on an interaction characterized by two processes : teaching and learning. The specificity of our approach consists in putting in synergy this reasoning (inherent in the fields HCI & CSCW), with the systemic reasoning of the didactician. That enables us to gradually modelize the device’s interface, each actor’s environment and the universe shared by the actors at different steps of the interaction. This modelization, formalized using the MOT software, is applied to the interpretation of an interaction in geometry supported by Cabri-geometry.

Sébastien GEORGE

Automatic Analysis of Synchronous Learners'chat to Determine Social Behaviour (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 10, 2003 - article de recherche

In this paper, we deal with collective learning in a distance context and with information technology to support it. A limit of distance situation leads in the difficulty to have a feedback on users’ actions and behaviors. In distance education, this difficulty is an obstacle to the monitoring of teacher and to the collective work of learners. We think that computer system can contribute to solve this problem by giving feedback on users’ behavior. We propose an approach to automatic analysis of learners’ social behavior, like moderator or independent, during computer-mediated synchronous textual conversations. This approach is based on the specification and design of a conversation tool semi-structured by communicative acts.

Aude DUFRESNE, Josianne BASQUE, Gilbert PAQUETTE, Michel LÉONARD, Karin LUNDGREN-CAYROL, Sandrine PROM TEP

Towards a Generic Model of Assistance to Actors in a TeleLearning Environment (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 10, 2003 - article de recherche

A generic model of assistance for telelearning actors is presented. The help system described by this model can be linked to any distributed or local computer environment, regardless type of knowledge domain and type of online users (learner, designer, tutor, teacher, etc.) using the help system. The help system guides these users by offering advice or by adapting the interface according to their preferences or those of a work team, to their task progress, to their interaction and/or to their history of utilized help functions in the help system. The generic model identifies the various components of such a system and proposes several typologies (help access types, object types, type of goals and themes, types of help conditions and actions, etc.). An applied example of this generic model is presented in order to specify a help system designed for telelearning designers, more specifically to users of a distributed instructional engineering workbench called ADISA.

André TRICOT, Fabienne PLÉGAT-SOUTJIS

Steps to an ergonomic approach of the design of an ITC based distance learning device (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 10, 2003 - article de recherche

This article presents what could be an ergonomic approach of the design of an ITC based distance learning device. More than a method, which indicates to the designers how they have to design, the ergonomic approach presented defends the idea that we can try to improve the designers’ and the users’ work, not by telling them how to do, nor even what to do, but rather by helping them to work out and share a common representation of the design goal and process. To improve the users’ work, it would be necessary to understand the various aspects of their learning and using activities, to support the implementation of these activities. The article presents a list of questions addressed to the designers, supposed to help them to work out a representation jointly, to anticipate the users’ problems and to seek solutions.

Valéry PSYCHÉ, Olavo MENDES, Jacqueline BOURDEAU

Contribution of Ontological Engineering to Distance Learning Environments (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 10, 2003 - article de recherche

How is Ontology relevant to Distance Education? This article claims that ontology and ontological engineering have a potential to increase intelligence both in the learning environments for distance education, and in the process of designing them. An introduction to the origins of the concept of ontology in western philosophy is presented, as well as a discussion on the relationships between artificial intelligence and ontological engineering, followed by a description of methodologies and tools for ontological engineering.

Max GIARDINA, Laïla OUBENAÏSSA

Online learning-teaching project (résumé) (article) (pdf)

Volume 10, 2003 - article de recherche

Two dimensions of tele-learning project are concerned by this article where we take in consideration learning, teaching and specific learning context. We believe that we have to accord particular attention to improve some cognitive and socio-cognitive skills such negotiation, argumentation and knowledge restructuring. We propose a pedagogical structure of mediation within mediated and distributed learning environments. At the same time, we suggest an on-line tool for pedagogical scenario to teacher. The tool allows teacher to adopt different approaches where learning products are related to the best teaching and learning strategy to be used. The tool also offers a set of job-aids that help teacher to manage, specify and develop learning activity, assessment modality, etc.

 
[Retour en haut de cette page] Haut de la page
Mise à jour du 5/06/17